INTEODTICTION. 13 circumstances we expect to see any expression, we readily imagine its presence. Notwithstanding Dr. Duchenne's great experience, lie for a long time fancied, as he states, that several muscles contracted under certain emotion?, whereas he ultimately convinced himself that the move- ment was confined to a single muscle. In order to acquire as good a foundation as possible, and to ascertain, independently of common opinion, how far particular movements of the features and "gestures are really expressive of certain states of the mind, I have found the following means the most serv- iceable. In the first place, to observe infants; for they exhibit many emotions, as Sir C. Bell remarks, a with extraordinary force; " whereas, in after life, some of our expressions " cease to have the pure and simple source from which they spring in infancy." 18 In the second place,, it occurred to me that the in- sane ought to be studied, as they are liable to the strong- est passions, and give uncontrolled vent to them. I had, myself, no opportunity of doing this, so I applied to Dr. Maudsley and received from him an introduction to Dr. J. Crichton Browne, who has charge of an immense asy- lum near Wakefield, and who, as I found, had already attended to the subject. This excellent observer lias with unwearied kindness sent me copious notes and de- scriptions, with valuable suggestions on many points; and I can hardly over-estimate the value of Ms assist- ance. I owe also, to the kindness of Mr. Patrick Xieol, of the Sussex Lunatic Asylum, interesting statements on two or three points. Thirdly Dr. Duchenne galvanized, as we have already seen, certain muscles in the face of an old man, whose skin was little sensitive, and thus produced various ex- 18 ' Anatomy of Expression,* 3rd edit. p. 198. I if ........ J' '