14: INTRODUCTION. pressions which were photographed on a large scale. It fortunately occurred to me to show several of the best plates, without a word of explanation, to above twenty educated persons of various ages and both sexes, asking them, in each case, by what emotion or feeling the old man was supposed to be agitated; and I recorded their answers in the words which they used. Several of the expressions were instantly recognised by almost every- one, though described in not exactly the same terms; and these may, I think, be relied on as truthful, and will hereafter be specified. On the other hand, the most widely different judgments were pronounced in regard to some of them. This exhibition was of use in another way, by convincing me how easily we may be misguided by our imagination; for when I first looked through Dr. Duchenne's photographs, reading at the same time the text, and thus learning what was intended, I was struck with admiration at the truthfulness of all, with only a few exceptions. Nevertheless, if I had examined them without any explanation, no doubt I should have been as much perplexed, in some cases, as other persons have been. Fourthly, I had hoped to derive much aid from the great masters in painting and sctilpture, who are such close observers. Accordingly, I have looked at photo- graphs and engravings of many well-known works; but, with a few exceptions, have not thus profited. The reason no doubt is, that in works of art, beauty is-the chief object; and strongly contracted facial muscles destroy beauty.19 The story of the composition is gen- erally told with wonderful force and truth by skilfully given accessories. Fifthly, it seemed to me highly important to ascer- 19 See remarks to this effect in Lessing's translated by W. Boss, 1836, p. 19. ' Laocoon,'