INTEOBUCTION". 15 tain whether the same expressions and gestures prevail, as has often been asserted without much evidence., with all the races of mankind, especially with those who have associated but little with Europeans. Whenever the same movements of the features or body express the same emotions in several distinct races of man, we may infer with much probability, that such expressions are true ones,—that is, are innate or instinctive. Con- ventional expressions or gestures, acquired by the in- dividual during early life, would probably have dif- fered in the different races, in the same manner as do their languages. Accordingly I circulated, early in the year 1867, the following printed queries with a request, which has been fully responded to, that actual observa- tions, and not memory, might be trusted. These queries were written after a considerable interval of time, dur- ing which my attention had been otherwise directed, and I can now see that they might have been greatly improved. To some of the later copies, I appended, in manuscript, a few additional remarks:— (1.) Is astonishment expressed by the eyes and mouth being- opened wide, and by the eyebrows being raised ? (2.) Does shame excite a blush when the colour of the skin allows it to be visible? and especially how low down the body does the blush extend? (3.) When a man is indignant or defiant does he frown, hold his body and head erect, square his shoulders and clench his fists? (4.) When considering deeply on any subject, or trying to understand any puzzle, does he frown, or wrinkle the skin beneath the lower eyelids? (5.) When in low spirits, are the corners of the mouth depressed, and the inner corner of the eyebrows raised by that muscle which the French call the " Grief muscle " ? The eyebrow in this state be- comes slightly oblique, with a little swelling at the inner end; and-the forehead is transversely wrinkled in the middle part, but not across the whole breadth, as when the eyebrows are raised , in surprise.