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INTRODUCTION.                            21


two long letters with admirable and detailed observa-
tions on their expression.    He likewise observed the
\                 Chinese immigrants in the Malay archipelago.

The well-known naturalist, H. M. Consul, Mr. Swin-
hoc, also observed for me the Chinese in their native
country; and he made inquiries from others whom he
could trust.

In India Mr. IT. Erskinc, whilst residing in his official
r                capacity in the Admodnugur District in the Bombay

I                Presidency, attended to the expression of the inhabitants,

|                 but found much difficulty in arriving at any safe con-

clusions, owing to their habitual concealment of all
emotions in the presence of Europeans. Pie also ob- _
tained information for me from Mr. West, the Jurige
in Oanara, and he consulted some intelligent nauve
gentlemen on certain points. In Calcutta Mr. J. Scott,
curator of the Botanic Gardens, carefully observed the
various tribes of men therein employed during a con-
|                 sidcrable period, and no one has sent me such full and

I                 valuable details.    The habit of accurate observation,

gained by his botanical studies, has been brought to
|                 bear on our present subject.   For Ceylon I am much

!                 indebted to the Rev. S. 0. Glenie for answers to some

of my queries.

I                       Turning to Africa, I have been unfortunate with

;                  respect to the negroes, though   Mr. Winwood Reade

r                 aided me as far as lay in his power.   It would have been

f                 comparatively easy to have obtained information in

I                  regard to the negro slavey in America; but as they have

!                  long associated with white men, such observations would

!                  have possessed little value.    In the southern parts of

|                  the continent Mrs. Barber observed   the   Kafirs and

Pingoes, and sent me many distinct answers. Mr.g J. P.
Mansel Weale also made some observations on the na-
tives, and procured for me a curious document, namely,