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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION*. /:
The three chief principles stated—The first principle— ,.'
Serviceable actions become habitual in association
with certain states of the mind, and are performed \
whether or not at' service in each particular case—
The force of habit—Inheritance—Associated habitual
movements in man—Reflex actions—-Passage of habits
into reflex actions—Associated habitual movements in
the lower animals—Concluding' remarks.
I WILL begin by giving the three Principles, which * fl
* appear to me to account for most of the expressions
and gestures involuntarily used by man and the lower
animals, under the influence of various emotions and \" .
sensations.1 I arrived, however, at these three Prin- V
ciples only at the close of my observations. They will
be discussed in the present and two following chapters
in a general manner. Fads observed both with man S *
and the lower animals will here be made use of; but , t
the latter facts are preferable, as less likely to deceive v t
us. In the fourth and fifth chapters, I will describe !...
the special expressions of some of the lower animals;
and in the succeeding chapters those of man. Every-
one will thus be able to judge for himself, how far my
1 Mr. Herbert Spencer (' Essays/ Second Series, 1863, , .
p. 138) has drawn a clear distinction between emotions ,
and sensations, the latter being " generated in onr cor- >', \
poreal framework." He classes as Feeling's both emotions )'
and sensations. !, '