Skip to main content

Full text of "Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals"

See other formats


GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION*.                                     /:

The   three   chief  principles  stated—The  first  principle—                              ,.'

Serviceable   actions   become   habitual    in   association

with  certain   states of the  mind,  and  are   performed                               \

whether or not at' service in each particular case—
The force of habit—Inheritance—Associated habitual
movements in man—Reflex actions—-Passage of habits
into reflex actions—Associated habitual movements in
the lower animals—Concluding' remarks.

I WILL begin by giving the three Principles, which                           *    fl

* appear to me to account for most of the expressions
and gestures involuntarily used by man and the lower
animals, under the influence of various emotions and                           \" .

sensations.1    I arrived, however, at these three Prin-                              V

ciples only at the close of my observations. They will
be discussed in the present and two following chapters
in a general manner. Fads observed both with man                           S *

and the lower animals will here be made use of;  but                            , t

the latter facts are preferable, as less likely to deceive                           v   t

us.    In the fourth and fifth chapters, I will describe                           !...

the special expressions of some of the lower animals;
and in the succeeding chapters those of man. Every-
one will thus be able to judge for himself, how far my

1 Mr. Herbert Spencer  (' Essays/ Second Series, 1863,                              ,   .

p. 138)  has drawn a clear distinction between emotions                                 ,

and sensations, the latter being " generated  in onr cor-                             >',   \

poreal framework."   He classes as Feeling's both emotions                              )'

and sensations.                                                                                                     !, '