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Full text of "Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals"

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CHAP. I.    SERVICEABLE ASSOCIATED HABITS.           31                                >

"under a state of nature; 4  and so it is in. many other                          v


The power of Association is admitted by everyone.
Mr. Bain remarks, that " actions, sensations and states
oi; feeling*, occurring together or in close succession,                          - ^

icviul to g'row together, or cohere, in such a way that

|                  whoii any one of them is afterwards presented to the                            ;

(                   mind, the* others are apt to be brought up in idea."5

1 1; is so important for our purpose fully to recognize that                          • /

tie t ions  readily become associated with  other actions
and with various states of the mind., that I will give a                            - *><

good many instances., in the first place relating to man,                              .t

*     and afterwards to the lower animals.    Some of the in-

stances are of a very trilling nature, but they arc as good                          * "  '

i'or our purpose as more important habits.    It is known

to everyone how diiUeult, or even impossible it is, with-

out repeated trials, to move the limbs in certain opposed                         •"*' '

;                   (lire-ctions which have never been practised.   Analogous

reuses occur with sensations, as in the common experiment
of rolling a marble beneath, the tips of two crossed fin-                          *  '

£cirs, when it feels exactly like two marbles.   Everyone                            ,+

k                  protects himself when falling to the ground by extend-

£                  Ing his arms, and as 'Professor Alison has remarked, few

L                  can resist acting thus, when voluntarily falling on a                           ;   "

I;                  soft bed.    A man when going out of doors puts on liis                            j

j                   gloves quite unconsciously;  and this may seem an ex-                          ^

JT                tre.mdy simple operation, but he who has taught a child                          ' , .

4 See for my authorities, and for various analog-oils
facts, * The Variation of Animals ami Plants under Bo-
moHtioatioii,' 1HGH, vol. ii. p. 304.

G 'The Senses and the Intellect,' 2nd edit. 1804, p. 332.
"Prof. Huxley remarks (* Kleinentary Lessons in .Physi-
olo^y,' 5tli edit. 1872, p. 300), 4t It may be laid down as a
rule,' that, if any two mental states he called np together,
or in succession, with due frequency and vividness, the
subsequent production of the one of them will suffice to
call up the other, and that whether we desire it or not."