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Full text of "Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals"


ears are directed forwards, and  the eyes have a fixed
stare: (see figs. 5 and 7).   These actions, as will hereafter

be explained, follow from the dog's intention to attack                               '| ,f

his enemy, and are thus to a large extent intelligible.                             ill I

As he prepares to spring with  a  savage growl on his                               I  V

enemy, the canine teeth are uncovered, and the ears are                               'f, ^

pressed close backwards on the head;   but with these                            ;  if *

latter actions, we are not here concerned.   Let us now                            '    i

suppose that the dog suddenly discovers that the man he                               ^

is approaching., is not a stranger, but his master; and lot                            t   */'. 2,

it be observed how completely and instantaneously his                            *'  T 4

whole   bearing is reversed.     Instead  of walking up-                               J yp

right, the body sinks downwards or even crouches, and                                \  "?

is thrown into licxuous movements;  his tail, instead of                           %   ^

being held stiff and upright, is lowered and wagged from                                $,

side to side; his hair instantly becomes smooth; his                                r

ears are depressed and drawn backwards, but not closely                               fr '/

to the head;  and his lips hang loosely.   From the draw-                            <   ^f -

ing back of the ears, the eyelids become elongated, and                             r   ?, V

the eyes no longer appear round and staring.   It should                                ,,   $

be added that the animal is at such times in an excited                                ^ i

condition from joy;  and nerve-force will be generated                                 ?t^*
in excess, which naturally leads to action of some kind.

Not one of the above movements, so clearly expressive                               ^f

of affection, are of the least direct service to the animal.                                 <**
They are explicable, as far as I. can see, solely from being

in complete opposition or antithesis to the attitude and                           ^   ;I ',

movements which, from intelligible causes, are assumed                               - ^
when a dbg intends to fight, and which consequently

are expressive of anger.    I request the reader to look                             '
at the four accompanying sketches, which have been

given in order to recall vividly the appearance of a dog                               If   !,
under these two states of mind.   It is, however, not a
little difficult to represent affection in a dog, whilst ca-
ressing his master and wagging his tail, as the essence of