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Full text of "Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals"

. II.     THE PRINCIPLE OF ANTITHESIS.            $3

opposition to other movements, naturally assumed under

an  opposite frame of mind, is that of shrugging the                        f

shoulders.    This expresses impotence or an apology,                       I

something which cannot be done, or cannot be avoided.                        I

The gesture is sometimes used consciously and volun-                       *^

tarily, but it is extremely improbable that it was at first                        I

deliberately invented, and afterwards fixed by habit;                        I

for not only do young children sometimes shrug their                        I

shoulders under the above states of mind, but the move-                        (

ment is accompanied, as will be shown in a future chap-                        &

ter, by various subordinate movements, which not one                        I

man in a thousand is aware of, unless he has specially                         I' is

attended to the subject.                                                                      ]t"

Dogs when approaching a strange dog, may find it                        ^
useful to show by their movements that they are friendly,

and. do not wish to fight.    "When two young dogs in                        1

play are growling and biting each other's faces and legs,                        J,
it is obvious that they mutually understand each other's
gestures and manners.   There seems, indeed, some de-
gree of instinctive knowledge in puppies and kittens, that
they must not use their sharp little teeth or claws too

freely in their play, though this sometimes happens and                        ,%

a squeal is the result; otherwise they would often injure                        /,

each other's eyes.   When my terrier bites my hand in                        "Ij

play, often snarling at the same time, if he bites too                        1*

hard and I say gently, gently, he goes on biting, but                        |J

answers me by a few wags of the tail, which seems to                        **

say C Never mind, it is all fun."   Although dogs do thus                        Mt

express, and may wish to express, to other dogs and to                        | -
man,, that they are in a- friendly state of mind, it is in-
credible that they could ever have deliberately thought
of drawing back and depressing their ears, instead of
holding them erect,of lowering and wagging their
tails, instead of keeping them stiff and upright, &c.5
"because they knew that these movements stood in direct