CHAP. II. THE PRINCIPLE OF ANTITHESIS. 65 player, whilst watching the course of his ball. A man or child in a passion, if he tells any one in a loud voice to begone,, generally moves his arm as if to push him away, although the offender may not be standing near, and although there may be not the least need to explain by a gesture what is meant. On the other hand, if we eagerly desire some one to approach us closely, we act as if pulling him towards us; and so in innumerable other instances. As the performance of ordinary movements of an opposite kind., under opposite impulses of the will, has become habitual in us and in the lower animals, so when actions of one kind have become firmly associated with any sensation or emotion, it appears natural that actions of a directly opposite kind, though of no use, should be unconsciously performed through habit and association, under the influence of a directly opposite sensation or emotion. • On this principle alone can I understand how the gestures and expressions which come under the present head of antithesis have originated. If in- deed they are serviceable to man or to any other animal, in aid of inarticulate cries or language, they will like- wise be voluntarily employed, and the habit will thus be strengthened. But whether or not of service as a means of communication, the tendency to perform op- posite movements under opposite sensations or emotions would, if we may judge by analogy, become hereditary through long practice; and there cannot be a doubt that several expressive movements due to the principle of antithesis are inherited.