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Full text of "Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals"

CHAP. IV. MEANS OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS.        S3

CHAPTEE IV.

MEANS OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS.

The emission of sounds—Vocal sounds—Sounds otherwise
produced—Erection of the dermal appendages, hairs,
feathers, &c., under the emotions of anger and terror
—The drawing- back of the ears as a preparation for
fighting, and as an expression of anger—Erection of
the ears and raising the head, a sign of attention.

IN this and the following chapter I will describe, "but
only in sufficient detail to illustrate my subject, the ex-
pressive movements, under different states of the mind,
of some few well-known animals. But before consider-
ing them in due succession, it will save much useless
repetition to discuss certain means of expression common
to most of them.

TJie emission of Sounds.—With many kinds of ani-
mals, man included,, the vocal organs are efficient in the
highest degree as a means of expression. We have seen,
in the last chapter, that when the sensorium is strongly
excited, the muscles of the body are generally thrown -
into violent action; and as a consequence, loud sounds
are uttered, however silent the animal may generally
be, and although the sounds may be of no use. Hares
and rabbits for instance, never, I believe, use their vocal
organs except in the extremity of suffering; as, when
a wounded hare is killed by the sportsman, or when a
young rabbit is caught by a stoat. Cattle and horses