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CHAP. IV.                     IN ANIMALS.                              95

brate classes. These appendages are erected under the
excitement of anger or terror; more especially when
these emotions are combined, or quickly succeed each
other. The action serves to make the animal appeal-
larger and more frightful to its enemies or rivals, and
is generally accompanied by various voluntary move-
ments adapted for the same purpose, and by the utter-
ance of savage sounds. Mr. Bartlett, who has had such
wide experience with animals of all kinds, does not doubt
that this is the case; but it is a different question whether
the power of erection was primarily acquired for this spe-
cial purpose.

I will first give a considerable body of facts showing
how general this action is with mammals, birds and rep-
tiles; retaining what I have to say in regard to man for
a future chapter. Mr. Sutton, the intelligent keeper
in the Zoological Gardens, carefully observed for me
the Chimpanzee and Orang; and he states that when
they are suddenly frightened, as by a thunderstorm, or
when they are made angry, as by being teased, their
hair becomes erect. I saw a chimpanzee who was alarmed
at the sight of a black coalheaver, and the hair rose all
over his body; he made little starts forward as if to at-
tack the man, without any real intention of doing so,
but with the hope, as the keeper remarked, of frighten-
ing him. The Gorilla, when enraged, is described by Mr.
Ford9 as having his crest of hair " erect and projecting
forward, his nostrils dilated, and his under lip thrown
down; at the same time uttering his characteristic yell,
designed, it would seem, to terrify his antagonists." I
saw the hair on the Anubis baboon, when angered bris-
tling along the back, from the neck to the loins, but not

0 As quoted in Huxley's * Evidence as to Man's Place
in Nature,' 1863, p. 52.