CHAP. IV. Iff ANIMALS. 97 a man to death in the United States, is described as first brandishing his antlers, squealing with rage and stamp- ing on the ground; " at length his hair was seen to rise and stand on end/' and then he plunged forward to the attack.11 The hair likewise becomes erect on goats, and, as I hear from Mr. Blyth, on some Indian antelopes. I have seen it erected on the hairy Ant-eater; and on the Agouti, one of the Eodents. A female Bat,12 which reared her young under confinement, when any one looked into the cage " erected "the fur on her back, and bit viciously at intruding fingers." Birds belonging to all the chief Orders ruffle their feathers when angry or frightened. Every one must have seen two cocks, even quite young birds, preparing to fight with erected neck-hackles; nor can these feath- ers when erected serve as a means of defence, for cock- fighters have found by experience that it is advantageous to trim them. The male Ruff (Machetes pugnax) like- wise erects its collar of feathers when fighting. When a dog approaches a common hen with her chickens, she spreads out her wings, raises her tail, ruffles all her feath- ers, and looking as ferocious as possible, clashes at the intruder. The tail is not always held in exactly the same position; it is sometimes so much erected, that the cen- tral feathers, as in the accompanying drawing, almost touch the back. Swans, when angered, likewise raise their wings and tail, and erect their feathers. They open their beaks, and make by paddling little rapid starts for- wards, against any one who approaches the water's edge too closely. Tropic birds 13 when disturbed on their nests 11 The Hon. J. Caton, Ottawa Acad. of Nat. Sciences, May, 18(58, pp. 36, 40. For the Gapra JBgayrus, ' Land and Water/ 1867, p. 37. 12 ' Land and Water,' July 20, 1867, p. 659. 18 Phaeton rubrivauda: * ibis,1 vol. iii. 1861, p. 180.