118 SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS: CHAP. V. ll •-$ we see the last vestige of these movements in a slight wag of the tail, Avithout any other movement of the body, and Avitliout even the ears being lowered. Dogs also exhibit their affection by desiring to rub against their masters, and to be rubbed or patted by them. Gratiolet explains the above gestures of affection in the folloAving manner: and the reader can judge whether the explanation appears satisfactory. Speaking of ani- mals in general, including the dog, lie says,2 " C'est ton- jours la partie la plus sensible de leiirs corps qui re- cherche lea caresses ou les donne. Lorsque toute la longueur des flancs et du corps est sensible, Familial ser- pente et rampe sous les caresses; et ces oiidulations se propageant le long dcs muscles analogues des segments jusqu'aux extremites de la colonne vertdbralc, la queue se ploie et s'agite." Further on, he adds, that dogs, when feeling affectionate, lower their ears in order to exclude all sounds, so that their whole attention may be concen- trated on the caresses of their master! Dogs have another and striking way of exhibiting their affection, namely, by licking the hands or faces of their masters. They sometimes lick other dogs, and then it is always their chops. I have also seen clogs lick- ing cats Avith whom they were friends. This habit prob- ably originated in the females carefully licking their puppies — the clearest object of their love — for the sake of cleansing them. They also often give their puppies, after a short absence, a few cursory licks, apparently from affection. Thus the habit will have become asso- ciated with the emotion of love, however it may after- wards be aroused. It is noAv so firmly inherited or in- nate, that it is transmitted equally to both sexes. A female terrier of mine lately had her puppies destroyed, 2 ' De la Physionomie,' 1865, pp. 187, 218.