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Full text of "Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals"

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we see the last vestige of these movements in a slight wag
of the tail, Avithout any other movement of the body, and
Avitliout even the ears being lowered. Dogs also exhibit
their affection by desiring to rub against their masters,
and to be rubbed or patted by them.

Gratiolet explains the above gestures of affection in
the folloAving manner: and the reader can judge whether
the explanation appears satisfactory. Speaking of ani-
mals in general, including the dog, lie says,2 " C'est ton-
jours la partie la plus sensible de leiirs corps qui re-
cherche lea caresses ou les donne. Lorsque toute la
longueur des flancs et du corps est sensible, Familial ser-
pente et rampe sous les caresses; et ces oiidulations se
propageant le long dcs muscles analogues des segments
jusqu'aux extremites de la colonne vertdbralc, la queue
se ploie et s'agite." Further on, he adds, that dogs, when
feeling affectionate, lower their ears in order to exclude
all sounds, so that their whole attention may be concen-
trated on the caresses of their master!

Dogs have another and striking way of exhibiting
their affection, namely, by licking the hands or faces of
their masters. They sometimes lick other dogs, and
then it is always their chops. I have also seen clogs lick-
ing cats Avith whom they were friends. This habit prob-
ably originated in the females carefully licking their
puppies  the clearest object of their love  for the sake
of cleansing them. They also often give their puppies,
after a short absence, a few cursory licks, apparently
from affection. Thus the habit will have become asso-
ciated with the emotion of love, however it may after-
wards be aroused. It is noAv so firmly inherited or in-
nate, that it is transmitted equally to both sexes. A
female terrier of mine lately had her puppies destroyed,

2 ' De la Physionomie,' 1865, pp. 187, 218.