CHAP. V. DOGS. 119 and though at all times a very affectionate creature, I was much struck with the manner in which she then tried to satisfy her instinctive maternal love by expending it on me; and her desire to lick my hands rose to an insati- able passion. The same principle probably explains why dogs, when feeling affectionate, like rubbing against their masters and being rubbed or patted by them, for from the nursing of their puppies, contact with a beloved ob- ject has become firmly associated in their minds with the emotion of love. The feeling of affection of a clog towards his master is combined with a strong sense of submission., which is akin to fear. Hence dogs not only lower their bodies and crouch a little as they approach their masters, but some- times throw themselves on the ground with their bellies upwards. This is a movement as completely opposite as is possible to any show of resistance. I formerly pos- sessed a large dog who was not at all afraid to fight with other dogs; but a wolf-like shepherd-dog in the neigh- bourhood, though not ferocious and not so powerful as mv dog, had a strange influence over him. When they met on the road, my dog used to run to meet Mm, with his tail partly tucked in between his legs and hair not erected; and then he would throw himself on the ground, belly upwards. By this action he seemed to say more plainly than by words, " Behold, I am your slave." A pleasurable and excited state of mind, associated •with affection, is exhibited by some dogs in a very pecul- iar manner; namely, by grinning. This was noticed long ago by Somerville, who says, " And with a courtly grin, the fawning hound Salutes thee cow'ring, his wide op'ning nose Upward he curls, and his large sloe-back eyes Melt in. soft blandishments, and hnmble joy.' The Chase, book i.