124. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS: CHAP. V. are likewise common to the aboriginal parents of the dog,, namely the wolf and jackal; and some of them to other species of the same group. Tamed wolves and jackals, when caressed by their masters, jump about for joy, wag their tails, lower their ears, lick their master's hands, crouch down, and even throw themselves on the ground belly upwards.4 I have seen a rather fox-like African jackal, from the Gaboon, depress its ears when caressed. Wolves and jackals, when frightened, certain- ly tuck in their tails; and a tamed jackal has been de- scribed as careering round his master in circles and fig- ures of eight, like a dog, with his tail between his legs. It has been stated c that foxes, however tame, never display any of the above expressive movements; but this is not strictly accurate. Many years ago I observed in the Zoological Gardens, and recorded the fact at the time, that a very tame English fox, when caressed by the keeper, wagged its tail, depressed its ears, and then threw itself on the ground, belly upwards. The black fox of North America likewise depressed its cars in a slight degree. But I believe that foxes never lick the hands of their masters, and I have been assured that when frightened they never tuck in their tails. If the explanation which I have given of the expression of affection in clogs be admitted, then it would appear that animals which have never been domesticated—namely Avolvcs, jackals, and even foxes—have nevertheless ac- 1 Many particulars are, g-iven by Gueldenstiidt in his account of the jackal in Nov. Comm. A cad. So. Imp. Petrop. 1775, torn. xx. p. 449. See also another excellent account of the manners of this animal and of its play, in ' Land and Water,' October, 1869. Lieut. Annesley, It. A., has also communicated to me some particulars with re- spect to the jackal. I have made many inquiries about wolves and jackals in the Zoological Gardens, and have observed them for myself. a ' Land and Water,' November 6, 1809.