CHAP. V. MONKEYS. 143 their compartment;21 for in the course of a few min- utes some of the monkeys ventured to approach and touch the turtle. On the other hand, some of the larger baboons were greatly terrified, and grinned as if on the point of screaming out. When I showed a little dressed- up doll to the Cynopitliecus niger, it stood motionless, stared intently with widely opened eyes, and advanced its ears a little forwards. But when the turtle was placed in its compartment, this monkey also moved its lips in an odd, rapid, jabbering manner, which the keeper declared was meant to conciliate or please the turtle. I was never able clearly to perceive that the eye- brows of astonished monkeys were kept permanently raised, though they were frequently moved up and down. Attention, which precedes astonishment, is expressed by man by a slight raising of the eyebrows; and Dr. Du- chenne informs me that when he gave to the monkey formerly mentioned some quite new article of food, it elevated its eyebrows a little, thus assuming an appear- ance of close attention. It then took the food in its fingers, and, with lowered or rectilinear eyebrows, scratched, smelt, and examined it,—an expression of re- flection being thus exhibited. Sometimes it would throw back its head a little, and again with sud- denly raised eyebrows re-examine and finally taste the food. In no case did any monkey keep its mouth open when it was astonished. Mr. Button observed for me a young orang and chimpanzee during a considerable length of time; and however much they were astonished, or Avhilst listening intently to some strange sound, they did "not keep their mouths open. This fact is surprising, as with ai ' Descent of Man,' vol. i. p. 43.