CHAP. VI. WEEPING. ing chapter. Here I shall almost confine myself to weep- ing or crying, more especially in children. Infants, when suffering even slight pain, moderate hunger, or discomfort, utter violent and prolonged screams. Whilst thus screaming their eyes are firmly closed, so that the skin round them is wrinkled, and the forehead contracted into a frown. The mouth is widely opened with the lips retracted in a peculiar manner, which causes it to assume a squarish form; the gums or teeth being more or less exposed. The breath is in- haled almost spasmodically. It is easy to observe in- fants whilst screaming; but I have found photographs made by the instantaneous process the best means for observation, as allowing more deliberation. I have col- lected twelve, most of them made purposely for me; and they all exhibit the same general characteristics. I have, therefore, had six of them * (Plate I.) reproduced by the heliotype process. The firm closing of the eyelids and consequent com- pression of the eyeball,—and tin's is a most important element in various expressions,—serves to protect the eyes from becoming too much gorged with blood, as will presently be explained in detail. With respect to the order in which the several muscles contract in firmly compressing the eyes, I am indebted to Dr. Langstaff, of Southampton, for some observations, which I have since repeated. The best plan for observing the order is to make a person first raise his eyebrows, and this pro- duces transverse wrinkles across the forehead; and then very gradually to contract all the muscles round the eyes 1 The best photographs in my collection are by Mr. Rejlander, of Victoria Street, London, and by Herr Kinder- mann, of Hamburg. Figs. 1, 3, 4, and G are by the former; and figs. 2 and 5, by the latter gentleman. Fig. G is given to show moderate crying in an older child.