148 EXPRESSION OF SUFFERING: CHAP. VI. with as much force as possible. The reader who is un- acquainted with the anatomy of the face, ought to refer to p. 24:, and look at the woodcuts 1 to 3. The corru- gators of the brow (corrugator supercilii) seem to be the first muscles to contract; and these draw the eyebrows downwards and inwards towards the base of the nose, causing vertical furrows, that is a frown, to appear be- tween the eyebrows; at the same time they cause the disappearance of the transverse wrinkles across the fore- head. The orbicular muscles contract almost simultane- ously with the corrugators, and produce wrinkles all round the eyes; they appear, however, to be enabled to contract with greater force, as soon as the contraction of the corrugators has given them some support. Lastly, the pyramidal muscles of the nose contract; and these draw the eyebrows and the skin of the forehead still lower down, producing short transverse wrinkles across the base of the nose.2 For the sake of brevity these mus- cles will generally be spoken of as the orbiculars, or as those surrounding the eyes. When these muscles are strongly contracted, those running to the upper lip 3 likewise contract and raise the upper lip. This might have been expected from the manner in which at least one of them, the malaris, 2 Henle ('Hanclbuch d. Syst. Anat. 1858, B. i. s. 139) agrees with Duchenne that this is the effect of the con- traction of the pyramidalis nasi. 8 These consist of the levator labii superioris alwqiic nasi, the levator laltii proprius, the malaris, and the ffyflomatirnn minor, or little zygomatic. This latter muscle runs parallel to and above the great zygomatic, and is attached to the onter part of the tipper lip. It is represented in fig. 2 (I. p. 24), but not in figs. 1 and 3. Dr. Duchenne first showed (' Mficanisme de la Physionomie Humaine,' Al- bum, 1862, p. 39) the importance of the contraction of this muscle in the shape assumed by the features in cry- ing. Henle considers the above-named muscles (except- ing the malaris) as subdivisions of the quadratus labii siipcrioris.