150 EXPRESSION OF SUFFERING-: CHAT. VI. As the upper lip is much drawn up during the act of screaming, in the manner just explained, the depressor muscles of the angles of the mouth (see K in woodcuts 1 and 2) are strongly contracted in order to keep the mouth widely open, so that a full volume of sound may be poured forth. The action of these opposed muscles., above and below, tends to give to the mouth an oblong, almost squarish outline, as may be seen in the accom- panying photographs. An excellent observer,5 in de- scribing a baby crying whilst being fed, says, " it made its mouth like a square, and let the porridge run out at all four corners." I believe, but we shall return to this point in a future chapter, that the depressor muscles of the angles of the mouth are less under the separate con- trol of the will than the adjoining muscles; so that if a young child is only doubtfully inclined to cry, this mus- cle is generally the first to contract, and is the last to cease contracting. "When older children commence cry- ing, the muscles which run to the upper lip are often the first to contract; and this may perhaps be due to older children not having so strong a tendency to scream loudly, and consequently to keep their mouths widely pressed " fun," " satisfaction," " cunning," " disgust," &e. We may infer from this that there is something wrong in the expression. Some of the fifteen persons may, how- ever, have heen partly misled hy not expecting to see an old man crying, and by tears not being secreted. With, respect to another figure by Dr. Duchenne (fig. 49), in which the muscles of half the face are galvanized in order to represent a man beginning to cry, with the eye- brow on the same side rendered oblique, "which is charac- teristic of misery, the expression was recognized by a greater proportional number of persons. Out of twenty- three persons, fourteen answered correctly, " sorrow," " distress," " grief," " just going to cry," " endurance of pain," &c. On the other hand, nine persons eitner could form no opinion or "were entirely wrong, answer- ing, " cunning leer," " jocund," " looking at an intense light," " looking at a distant object," <fcc. 5 ifrs, GaskeU, ' Mary Barton,' new edit. p. 84.