154: EXPRESSION OF'SUFFERING: CHAP. VI. causes, of which fact Sir J". Lubbock 8 has collected in- stances. A New Zealand chief " cried like a child he- cause the sailors spoilt his favourite cloak by powdering it with flour." I saw in Tierra del Fuego a native who had lately lost a brother, and who alternately cried with hysterical violence, and laughed heartily at anything which amused him. "With the civilized nations of Eu- rope there is also much difference in the frequency of weeping. Englishmen rarely cry, except under the pres- sure of the acutest grief; whereas in some parts of the Continent the men shed tears much more readily and freely. The insane notoriously give way to all their emo- tions with little or no restraint; and I am informed by Dr. J. Crichton Browne, that nothing is more charac- teristic of simple melancholia, even in the male sex, than a tendency to weep on the slightest occasions, or from no cause. They also weep disproportionately on the occur- rence of any real cause of grief. The length of time dur- ing which some patients weep is astonishing, as well as the amount of tears which they shed. One melancholic girl wept for a whole day, and afterwards confessed to Dr. Browne, that it was because she remembered that she had once shaved off her eyebrows to promote their growth. Many patients in the asylum sit for a long time rocking themselves backwards and forwards; " and if spoken to, they stop their movements, purse up their eyes, depress the corners of the mouth, and burst out crying." In some of these cases, the being spoken to or kindly greeted appears to suggest some fanciful and sor- rowful notion; but in other cases an effort of any kind excites weeping, independently of any sorrowful idea. Patients suffering from acute mania likewise have parox- 8 ' The Origin of Civilization,' 1870, p. 355.