160 EXPRESSION OF SUFFERING: CHJLP. VI being impeded. It is, therefore, certain that both the arteries and the veins of the eye are more or less dis- tended during violent expiration. The evidence in de- tail may be found in Professor Bonders' valuable me- moir. We see the effects on the veins of the head, in. their prominence, and in the purple colour of the face of a man who coughs violently from being half choked. I may mention, on the same authority, that the whole eye certainly advances a little during each violent ex- piration. This is due to the dilatation of the retro-ocular vessels, and might have been expected from the intimate connection of the eye and brain; the brain being known to rise and fall with each respiration, when a portion of the skull has been removed; and as may be seen along the unclosed sutures of infants' heads. This also, I pre- sume; is the reason that the eyes of a strangled man ap- pear as if they were starting from their sockets. With respect to the protection of the eye during vio- lent expiratory efforts by the pressure of the eyelids, Pro- fessor Bonders concludes from his various observations that this action certainly limits or entirely removes the dilatation of the vessels.16 At such times, he adds, we is prof. Bonders remarks (ibid. p. 28), that, "After injury to the eye, after operations, and in some forms of internal inflammation, we attach great value to the uniform support of the closed eyelids, and we increase this in many instances by the application of a bandag-e. In both eases we carefully endeavour to avoid great ex- piratory pressure, the disadvantage of which is well known." Mr. Bowman informs me that in the excessive photo- phobia, accompanying* what is called scrofulous ophthal- mia in children, when the light is so very painful that during- weeks or months it is constantly excluded by the most forcible closure of the lids, he has often been struck on opening" the lids by the paleness of the eye, ónot an unnatural paleness, but an absence of the red- ness that might have been expected when the surface is somewhat inflamed, as is then usually the case; and this paleness he is inclined to attribute to the forcible closure of the eyelids.