CHAP. VI. WEEPING-. not unfrequently see the hand involuntarily laid upon the eyelids, as if the better to support and defend the eyeball. Nevertheless much evidence cannot at present be advanced to prove that the eye actually suffers injury from the want of support during violent expiration; but there is some. It is " a fact that forcible expiratory efforts in violent coughing or vomiting., and especially in sneezing, sometimes give rise to ruptures of the little (external) vessels" of the eye.17 With respect to the internal vessels. Dr. Gunning has lately recorded a case of exophthalmos in consequence of whooping-cough, which in his opinion depended on the rupture of the deeper vessels; and another analogous case has been re- corded. But a mere sense of discomfort would probably suffice to lead to the associated habit of protecting the eyeball by the contraction of the surrounding muscles. Even the expectation or chance of injury would probably be sufficient, in the same manner as an object moving too near the eye induces involuntary winking of the eyelids. We may, therefore, safely conclude from Sir C. BelFs observations, and more especially from the more careful investigations by Professor Bonders, that the firm clo- sure of the eyelids during the screaming of children is an action full of meaning and of real service. We have already seen that the contraction of the orbicular muscles leads to the drawing up of the upper lip, and consequently, if the mouth is kept widely open, to the drawing down of the corners by the contraction of the depressor muscles. The formation of the naso- labial fold on the cheeks likewise follows from the draw- ing up of the upper lip. Thus all the chief expressive movements of the face during crying apparently result 1T Bonders, ibid. p. 36.