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164:              EXPRESSION OF SUFFERING:       CHAP. VI.

ing by reflex action the secretion of tears.   Accordingly

I   / . | i                         I asked one of my informants, a surgeon, to attend to
r * _' *:.                         the effects of retching when nothing was thrown up
r '; ' *..'                         from the stomach; and, by an odd coincidence, he him-
f I"'      :                         self suffered the next morning from an attack of retch-
^       '' '                         ing, and three days subsequently observed a lady under
f; i      !                           a similar attack; and he is certain that in neither case
\  l     <                           an atom of matter was ejected from the stomach; yet the

orbicular muscles were strongly contracted, and tears

;j  '                                freely secreted.   I can also speak positively to the ener-

'j                                 getic contraction of these same muscles round the eyes,

\ '                  .                and to the coincident free secretion of tears, when the

 (r                                        abdominal muscles act with unusual force in a downward

i''' [                                 direction on the intestinal canal.

ff'                                     Yawning commences with a deep inspiration, fol-

',!                                 lowed by a long and forcible expiration; and at the

< ;                                  same time almost all the muscles of the body are strongly

I1                                     contracted, including those round the eyes.   During this
\ t '                               act tears are often secreted, and I have seen them even
!                                  rolling down the cheeks.

i                                      I have frequently observed that when persons scratch
some point which itches intolerably, they forcibly close

j .*     x                            their eyelids; but they do not, as I believe, first draw a

"I                                   deep breath and then expel it with force; and I have

*   '                                never noticed that the eyes then become filled with tears;

i                                   but I am not prepared to assert that this does not occur.

|                                   The forcible closure of the eyelids is, perhaps, merely a
part of that general action by which almost all the mus-

,  ,                                cles of the body are at the same ftme rendered rigid.   It

] ,            '                      is quite different from the gentle closure of the eyes

I '                                 which often accompanies, as Gratiolet remarks;10 the

|'f                                 smelling a delicious odour, or the tasting a delicious

1 '>'                                 morsel, and which probably originates in the desire to

j |                                 shut out any disturbing impression through the eyes.

** 'Be la Physionomie,' 1865, p. 217.