;i, I \ )'' £ 174. EXPRESSION OF SUFFERING: CHAP. VI. -ilfi I may remark that if, during an early period of life, when habits of all kinds are readily established, our infants, when pleased, had been accustomed to utter loud peals of laughter (during which the vessels of their eyes are distended) as often and as continuously as they have yielded when distressed to screaming-fits, then it is prob- able that in after life tears would have been as copiously and as regularly secreted under the one state of mind as under the other. Gentle laughter, or a smile, or even a pleasing thought, would have sufficed to cause a mod- erate secretion of tears. There does indeed exist an evi- dent tendency in this direction, as will be seen in a future chapter, when we treat of the tender feelings. With the Sandwich Islanders, according to Freycinet,24 tears are actually recognized as a sign of happiness; but we should require better evidence on this head than that of a pass- ing voyager. So again if our infants, during many gen- erations, and each of them during several years, had al- most daily suffered from prolonged choking-fits, during which the vessels of the eye are distended and tears copiously secreted, then it is probable, such is the force of associated habit, that during after life the mere thought of a choke, without any distress of mind, would have sufficed to bring tears into our eyes. To sum up this chapter, weeping is probably the re- sult of some such chain of events as follows. Children, when wanting food or suffering in any way, cry out loudly, like the young of most other animals, partly as a call to their parents for aid, and partly from any great exertion serving as a relief. Prolonged screaming in- evitably leads to the gorging of the blood-vessels of the eye; and this will have led, at first consciously and at 24 Quoted by Sir J. Liibbock, * Prehistoric Times,' 1865, p. 458.