178 EXPKESSION OF GRIEF: CHAP. VII, Obliquity of the eyebrows.—Two points alone in the above description require further elucidation, and these are very curious ones; namely, the raising of the inner ends of the eyebrows, and the drawing down of the cor- ners of the mouth. With respect to the eyebrows, they may occasionally be seen to assume an oblique position in persons suffering from deep dejection or anxiety; for instance, I have observed this movement in a mother whilst speaking about her sick son; and it is sometimes excited by quite trifling or momentary causes of real or pretended distress. The eyebrows assume this position owing to the contraction of certain muscles (namely, the orbiculars, corrugators, and pyramidals of the nose, which together tend to lower and contract the eyebrows) being partially checked by the more powerful action, of the central fasciae of the frontal muscle. These latter fascia?, by their contraction raise the inner ends alone of the eyebrows; and as the corrugators at the same time draw the eyebrows together, their inner ends become puckered into a fold or lump. This fold is a highly char- acteristic point in the appearance of the eyebrows when r-endered oblique, as may be seen in figs. 2 and 5, Plate II. The eyebrows are at the same time somewhat rough- ened, owing to the hairs being made to project. Dr. J. Crichton Browne has also often noticed in melancholic patients who keep their eyebrows persistently oblique, " a peculiar acute arching of the upper eyelid." A trace of this may be observed by comparing the right and left eyelids of the young man in the photograph (fig. 2, Plate II.); for he was not able to act equally on both eyebrows. Tjais is;also shown by the unequal furrows on the two sides of Ms forehead. The acute arching- of the eyelids see moire especially Sir C. Bell, * Anatomy of Expression,' 3rd. edit. 1844, p. 151.