:>' ''!/'! 180 EXPRESSION OF GRIEF: CHAP. VII. -, vertical furrows, separating the exterior and lowered j part of the skin of the forehead from the central and j raised part. The union of these vertical furrows with j the central and transverse furrows (see figs. 2" and 3) j produces a mark on the forehead which has been com- i pared to a horse-shoe; but the furrows more strictly form three sides of a quadrangle. They are often con- i spicuous on the foreheads of adult or nearly adult per- ' sons, when their eyebrows are made oblique; but with young children, owing to their skin not easily wrinkling, | they are rarely seen, or mere traces of them can be de- I tected. These peculiar furrows are best represented in fig. 3, i Plate IIV on the forehead of a young lady who has the power in an unusual degree of voluntarily acting on the requisite muscles. As she was absorbed in the attempt, whilst being photographed, her expression was not at all one of grief; I have therefore given the forehead alone. Fig. 1 on the same plate, copied from Dr. Du- chenne's work,4 -represents, on a reduced scale, the face, in its natural state, of a young man who was a good actor. In fig. 2 he is shown simulating grief, but the am unable to understand, judging from Henle's drawings I (woodcut, fig. 3), how the corrugator can act in the man- ; ner described by Duchenne. See, also, on this subject, j Prof. Bonders' remarks in the * Archives of Medicine,' 1870, vol. v. p. 34. Mr. J. Wood, who is so well known for his careful study of the muscles of the human frame, informs me that he believes the account which I have ; given of the action of the corrugator to be correct. But this is not a point of any importance with respect to the expression which is caused by the obliquity of the eyebrows, nor of much importance to the theory of its origin. : * I am greatly indebted to Dr. Duchenne for permission -, to have these two photographs (figs. 1 and 2) reproduced by the heliotype process from his work in folio. Many of the foregoing remarks on the furrowing of the skin, when the eyebrows are rendered oblique, are taken from his excellent discussion on this subject.