CHAP. VIII. LAUGHTER. 203 increased. At the same time, as I have repeatedly ob- served, the eyebrows are slightly lowered, which shows that the upper as well as the lower orbiculars contract at least to some degree, though this passes unperceived, as far as our sensations are concerned. If the original photograph of the old man, with his countenance in its usual placid state (fig. 4), be compared with that (fig. 5) in which he is naturally smiling, it may be seen that the eyebrows in the latter are a little lowered. I presume that this is owing to the upper orbiculars being impelled, through the force of long-associated habit, to act to a certain extent in concert with the lower orbiculars, which themselves contract in connection with the draw- ing up of the upper lip. The tendency in the zygomatic muscles to contract under pleasurable emotions is shown by a curious fact, communicated- to me by Dr. Browne, with respect to patients suffering from general paralysis of the insane^ " In this malady there is almost invariably optimism— delusions as to wealth, rank, grandeur—insane joyous- ness, benevolence, and profusion, while its very earliest physical symptom is trembling at the corners of the mouth and at the outer corners of the eyes. This is a well-recognized fact. Constant tremulous agitation of the inferior palpebral and great zygomatic muscles is pathognomic of the earlier stages of general paralysis. The countenance has a pleased and benevolent expres- sion. As the disease advances other muscles become involved, but until complete fatuity is reached, the pre- vailing expression is that of feeble benevolence." As in laughing and broadly smiling the cheeks and upper lip are much raised, the nose appears to be short- 11 See, also, remarks to the same effect by Dr. J. Crich- ton Browne in 'Journal of Mental Science,' April, 1871, p. 149.