212 EXPRESSION OF LOYE, ETC. CHAP. VIII. more especially of his kangaroo dogs. The Greenland- ers, " when they affirm anything with pleasure, suck down air with a certain sound; " w and this may be an imitation of the act of swallowing savoury food. Laughter is suppressed by the firm contraction of the orbicular muscles of the mouth, which prevents the great zygomatie and other muscles from drawing the lips backwards and upwards. The lower lip is also some- times held by the teeth, and this gives a roguish ex- pression to the face, as was observed with the blind and deaf Laura Bridgman.20 The great zygomatie muscle is sometimes variable in its course, and I have seen a young woman in whom the depressores anguli oris were brought into strong action in suppressing a smile; but this by no means gave to her countenance a melancholy expression, owing to the brightness of her eyes. Laughter is 'frequently employed in a forced manner to conceal or mask some other state of mind, even anger. We often see persons laughing in order to conceal their shame or shyness. When a person purses up his mouth, as if to prevent the possibility of a smile, though there is nothing to excite one, or nothing to prevent its free indulgence, an affected, solemn, or pedantic expression is given; but of such hybrid expressions nothing more need here be said. In the case of derision, a real or pre- tended smile or laugh is often blended with the expres- sion proper to contempt, and this may pass into angry contempt or scorn. In such cases the meaning of the laugh or smile is to show the oifending person.that he excites only amusement. Love, tender feelings, &c. — Although the emotion of " Craixtz, quoted by Tylor, ' Primitive Culture,' 1871, vol. i. p. 169. 20 F. Lieber, ' Smithsonian Contributions,' 1851, vol. ii. p. 7.