214 ,EXPRESSION OF LOVE, ETC. CHAP. VIII. We Europeans are so accustomed to kissing as a mark of affection,, that it might be thought to he innate in mankind; but this is not the case. Steele was mis- taken when he said " Nature was its author, and it began with the first courtship." Jemmy Button, the Fuegian, told me that this practice was unknown in his land. It is equally unknown with the JSTew Zealanders, Tahitians, Papuans, Australians, Somals of Africa, and the Esqui- maux.22 But it is so far innate or natural that it appar- ently depends on pleasure from close contact with a be- loved person; and it is replaced in various parts of the world, by the rubbing of noses, as with the New Zea- . landers and Laplanders, by the rubbing or patting of the arms, breasts, or stomachs, or by one man striking his own face with the hands or feet of another. Perhaps the practice of blowing, as a mark of affection, on vari- ous parts of the body may depend on the same princi- ple.23 The feelings which are called tender are difficult to analyse; they seem to be compounded of affection, joy, and especially of sympathy. These feelings are in them- selves of a pleasurable nature, excepting when pity is too deep, or "horror is aroused, as in hearing of a tortured man or animal. They are remarkable under our present point of view from so readily exciting the secretion of tears. Many a father and son have wept on meeting after a long separation, especially if the meeting has been un- . expected. No doubt extreme joy by itself tends to act on the lacrymal glands; but on such occasions as the foregoing vague thoughts of the grief which would have 22 Sir J. Lubbock, ' Prehistoric Times,' 2nd edit. 1869, p. 552, gives full authorities for these statements. The quotation from Steele is taken from this work. 28 See a full acotmt, with references, by K. B. Tylor, ' Researches into the Early History of Mankind,' 2nd *edit. 1870, p. 51.