218 EXPRESSION OF DEVOTION. CHAP. VIII. as the fact may be, that the holy kiss of love differs but little from that which a man bestows on a woman, or a woman on a man.25 Devotion is chiefly expressed by the face being directed towards the heavens, with the eyeballs upturned. Sir 0. Bell remarks that, at the ap- proach of sleep, or of a fainting-fit, or of death, the pupils are drawn upwards and inwards; and he believes that " when we are wrapt in devotional feelings, and outward impressions are unheeded, the eyes are raised by an action neither taught nor acquired; " and that this is due to the same cause as in the above cases.20 That the eyes are upturned during sleep is, as I hear from Professor Bonders, certain. With babies, whilst sucking their mother's breast, this movement of the eye- balls often gives to them an absurd appearance of ec- static delight; and here it may be clearly perceived that a struggle is going on against the position naturally assumed during sleep. But Sir C. Bell's explanation of the fact, which rests on the assumption that certain muscles are more under the control of the will than others is, as I hear from Professor Bonders, incorrect. As the eyes are often turned up in prayer, without the mind being so much absorbed in thought as to approach to the unconsciousness of sleep, the movement is prob- ably a conventional one — the result of the common be- lief that Heaven, the source of Divine power to which we pray, is seated above us. A humble kneeling posture, with the hands upturned and palms joined, appears to us, from long habit, a ges- ture so appropriate to devotion, that it might be thought to be innate; but I have not met with any evidence to 25 Dr. Mandsley has a discussion to this effect in Ms 'Body and Mind,'"l870, p. 85. 28 ' The Anatomy of Expression,' p. 103, and * Philo- sophical Transactions,' 1823, p. 182.