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220                              REFLECTION.                      CHAP. IX.



The act of frowning—Reflection with an effort, or with the
perception of something difficult or disagreeable—Ab-
stracted meditation—Ill-temper—Moroseness—Obsti-
nacy—Sulkiness and pouting—Decision or determina-
tion—The firm closure of the mouth.

THE corrugators, by their contraction, lower the eye-
brows and bring them together, producing vertical fur-
rows on the forehead—that is, a frown. Sir C. Bell,
who erroneously thought that the corrugator was pecul-
iar to man, ranks it as "the most remarkable muscle
of the human face. It knits the eyebrows with an ener-
getic effort, which unaccountably, but irresistibly, con-
veys the idea of mind." Or, as he elsewhere says, " when
the eyebrows are knit, energy of mind is apparent., and
there is the mingling of thought and emotion with the
savage and brutal rage of the mere animal." * There

1 ' Anatomy of Expression,* pp. 137, 139. It is not mxr-
prising that the corrugators should have become much
more developed in man than in the anthropoid apes; for
they are brought into incessant action by him under vari-
ous circumstances, and will have been strengthened and
modified by the inherited effects of use. We have seen
how important a part they play, tog-ether with the orbicu-
lares, in protecting the eyes from being too much gorged
with blood during violent expiratory movements. When
the eyes are closed as quickly and as forcibly as possible,