222 REFLECTION. CHAP. IX, lie finds it too tight. Some persons are such habitual frowners, that the mere effort of speaking almost always causes their brows to contract. Men of all races frown when they are in any way per- plexed in thought, as I infer from the answers which I have received to my queries; but I framed them badly, confounding absorbed meditation with perplexed reflec- tion. Nevertheless, it is clear that the Australians, Malays, Hindoos, and Kafirs of South Africa frown, when they are puzzled. Dobritzhoffer remarks that the Guaranies of South America on like occasions knit their brows.4 Prom these considerations, we may conclude that frowning is not the expression of simple reflection, how- ever profound, or of attention, however close, but of something difficult or displeasing encountered in a train of thought or in action. Deep reflection can, however, seldom be long carried on without some difficulty, so that it will generally be accompanied by a frown. Hence it is that frowning commonly gives to the countenance, as Sir 0. Bell remarks, an aspect of intellectual energy. But in order that this effect may be produced, the eyes must be clear and steady, or they may be cast downwards, as often occurs in deep thought. The countenance must not be otherwise disturbed, as in the case of an ill-tem- pered or peevish man, or of one who shows the effects of prolonged suffering, with dulled eyes and drooping jaw, or who perceives a bad taste in his food, or who finds it difficult to perform some trifling act, such as threading a needle. In these cases a frown may often be seen, but it will be accompanied by some other expres- sion, which will entirely prevent the countenance hav- * * History of the Abipories,' Eng. translat. vol. ii. p. 59, as quoted by Lubbock, * Origin of Civilisation,' 1870, p. 355.