228 ILL-TEMPER CHAP. IX. is that of convergence; and Professor Bonders remarks, as bearing on their divergence during a period of com- plete abstraction, that when one eye becomes blind, it almost always, after a short lapse of time, deviates out- wards; for its muscles are no longer used in moving the eyeball inwards for the sake of binocular vision. Perplexed reflection is often accompanied by certain movements or gestures. At such times we commonly raise our hands to our foreheads, mouths, or chins; but we do not act thus, as far as I have seen, when we are quite lost in meditation, and no difficulty is encountered. Plautus, describing in one of his plays 7 a puzzled man, says, " Now look, he has pillared his chin upon his hand." Even so trifling and apparently unmeaning a gesture as the raising of the hand to the face has been observed with some savages. M. J. Mansel Weale has seen it with the Kafirs of South Africa; and the native chief Gaika adds, that men then " sometimes pull their beards." Mr. "Washington Matthews, who attended to some of the wildest tribes of Indians in the western regions of the United States, remarks that he has seen them when concentrating their thoughts, bring their " hands, usually the thumb and index finger, in contact with some part of the face, commonly the upper lip." We can understand why the forehead should be pressed or rubbed, as deep thought tries the brain; but why the hand should be raised to the mouth or face is far from clear. Ill-temper.—We have seen that frowning is the nat- ural expression of some difficulty encountered, or of something disagreeable experienced either in thought or action, and he whose mind is often and readily affected ~'~v 7 ' Miles Gloriosus,' act ii. sc. 2.