I CHAP. IX. ILL-TEMPER. 229 in this way., will be apt to be ill-tempered, or slightly angry, or peevish, and will commonly show it by frown- ing. But a cross expression, due to a frown, may be counteracted, if the mouth appears sweet, from being habitually drawn into a smile, and the eyes are bright and cheerful. So it will be if the eye is clear and steady, and there is the appearance of earnest reflection. Frown- ing, with some depression of the corners of the mouth, which is a sign of grief, gives an air of peevishness. If a child (see Plate IV., fig. 2)8 frowns much whilst cry- ing, but does not strongly contract in the usual man- ner the orbicular muscles, a well-marked expression of anger or even of rage, together with misery, is dis- played. If the whole frowning brow be drawn much down- ward by the contraction of the pyramidal muscles of the nose, which produces transverse wrinkles or folds across the base of the nose, the expression becomes one of mo- roseness. Duchenne believes that the contraction of this muscle, without any frowning, gives the appearance of extreme and aggressive hardness.0 But I much doubt whether this is a true or natural expression. I have shown Duchenne's photograph of a young man, with this muscle strongly contracted by means of galvanism, to eleven persons, including some artists, and none of them could form an idea what was intended, except one, a girl, who answered correctly, " surely reserve." When I first looked at this photograph, knowing what was in- tended, my imagination added, as I believe, what was necessary, namely, a frowning brow; and consequently 8 The original photograph by Herr Kindermann is much more expressive than this copy, as it shows the frown on the brow more plainly. 8 ' Mecanisme de la Physionomie liumame,' Album, Legencle iv. figs. 16—18.