230 SULKINESS. CHAP. IX. the expression appeared to me true and extremely mo- rose. A firmly closed mouth, in addition to a lowered and frowning brow,, gives determination to the expression, or may make it obstinate and sullen. How it comes that the firm closure of the mouth gives the appear- ance of determination will presently be discussed. An expression of sullen obstinacy has been clearly recog- nized by my informants, in the natives of six different regions of Australia. It is well marked, according to Mr. Scott, with the Hindoos. It has been recognized with the Malays, Chinese, Kafirs, Abyssinians, and in a conspicuous degree, according to Dr. Kothrock, with the wild Indians of North America, and according to Mr. D. Forbes, with the Aymaras of Bolivia. I have also observed it with the Araucanos of southern Chili. Mr. Dyson Lacy remarks that the natives of Australia, when in this frame of mind, sometimes fold their arms across their breasts, an attitude which may be seen with us. A firm determination, amounting to obstinacy, is, also, sometimes expressed by both shoulders being kept raised, the meaning of which gesture will be explained in the following chapter. • With young children sulkiness is shown by pouting, or, as it is sometimes called, " making a snout." 10 When the corners of the mouth are much depressed, the lower lip is a little everted and protruded; and this is like- wise called a pout. But the pouting here referred to, consists of the protrusion of both lips into a tubular form, sometimes to such an extent as to project as far as the end of the nose, if this be short. Pouting is gen- erally accompanied by frowning, and sometimes by the 10 Hensleigi. Wedgwood on ' The Origin of Language,' 1866, p. 78.