11' 233 ANQ-EE. CHAP. X. m- \w I nature of the actions which have been habitually per- formed under this particular state of the mind. A man, for instance, may know that his life is in the extremest peril, and may strongly desire to save it; yet, as Louis XVI. said, when surrounded by a fierce mob, "Am I afraid? feel my pulse." So a man may intensely hate another, but until his bodily frame is affected, he can- not be said to be enraged. Rage.—I have already had occasion to treat of this emotion in the third chapter, when discussing the direct influence of the excited sensorium on the body, in com- bination with the effects of habitually associated actions. Eage exhibits itself in the most diversified manner. The heart and circulation are-always affected; the face red- dens or becomes purple, with the veins on the forehead arid neck distended. The reddening of the skin has been observed with the copper-coloured Indians of. South America,2 and even, as it is said, on the white cicatrices left by old wounds on negroes.3 Monkeys also redden from passion. With one of my own infants, under four months old, I repeatedly observed that the first symp- tom of an approaching passion was the rushing of the blood into his bare scalp. On the other hand, the action of the heart is sometimes so much impeded by great rage, that the countenance becomes pallid or livid,4 and not a few men with heart-disease have dropped down dead under this powerful emotion. 2 Reng-ger, Naturgesch. der Saugethiere von Paraguay, 1830, s. 3. 8 Sir C. Bell, ' Anatomy of Expression,' p. 96. On the other hand, Dr. Burgess (* Physiology of Blushing,' 1839, p. 31) speaks of the reddening of a cicatrix in a negress as of the nature of a blush. 4 Moreau and Gratiolet have discussed the colour of the face under the influence of intense passion: see the edit. of 1820 of Lavater, vol. iv. pp. 282 and 300; and Gratiolet, * De la Physionomie,'p. 345.