CHAP. XI. CONTEMPT. 253 CHAPTER XI. DISDAIN—CONTEMPT—DISGUST—GUILT—PRIDE, ETC. —HELPLESSNESS—PATIENCE—AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION. Contempt, scorn and disdain, variously expressed—.De- risive smile—Gestures expressive of contempt—Disgust —Guilt, deceit, pride, &c.—Helplessness or impotence —Patience—Obstinacy—Shrug'ging" the shoulders com- mon to most of the races of man—Signs of affirmation and negation. SCORN and disdain can hardly be distinguished from contempt, excepting that they imply a rather more angry frame of mind. Nor can they be clearly distinguished from the feelings discussed in the last chapter under the terms of sneering and defiance. ^Disgust is a sensa- tion rather more distinct in its nature, and refers to something revolting, primarily in relation to the sense of taste, as actually perceived or vividly imagined; and secondarily to anything which causes a similar feeling, through the sense of smell, touch, and even of eyesight.^ Nevertheless, extreme contempt, or as it is often* called loathing contempt, hardly differs from disgust. These several conditions of the mind are, therefore, nearly re- lated; and each of them may be exhibited in many dif- ferent ways. Some writers have insisted chiefly on one mode of expression, and others on a different mode.