CHAP. XL CONTEMPT. 255 by movements about the nose, or round the mouth; but the latter movements, when strongly pronounced, indi- cate disgust. The nose may be slightly turned up, which apparently follows from the turning up of the upper lip; or the movement may be abbreviated into the mere wrinkling of the nose. The nose is often slightly con- tracted, so as partly to close the passage;3 and this is commonly accompanied by a slight snort or expiration. All these actions are the same with those which we em- ploy when we perceive an offensive odour, and wish to exclude or expel it. In extreme cases, as Dr. Piderit remarks,4 we protrude and raise both lips, or the upper lip alone, so as to close the nostrils as by a valve, the nose being thus turned up. We seem thus to say to the despised person that he smells offensively,5 in nearly the same manner as we express to him by half-closing our eyelids, or turning away our faces, that he is not worth looking at. It must not, however, be supposed that such ideas actually pass through the mind when we exhibit our contempt; but as whenever we have perceived a dis- 8 Dr. W. Ogle, in an interesting- paper on the Sense of Smell (' Medico-Chirurgical Transactions,' vol. liii. p. 268), shows that when we wish to smell carefully, instead of taking- one deep nasal inspiration, we draw in the air by a succession of rapid short sniffs. If " the nostrils be watched during- this process, it will be seen that, so far from dilating-, they actually contract at each sniff. The contraction does not include the whole anterior opening, but only the posterior portion." He then explains the cause of this movement. When, on the other hand, we wish to exclude any odour, the contraction, I presume, affects only the anterior part of the nostrils. * ' Mimik und Physiognomik,' ss. 84, 93. Gratiolet (ibid. p. 155) takes nearly the same view with Dr. Piderit respect- ing- the expression of contempt and disgust. 5 Scorn implies a strong- form, of contempt; and one of the roots of the word * scorn' means, according- to Mr. Wedgwood (Diet, of English Etymology, vol. iii. p. 125),• ordure or dirt. A person who is scorned is treated like dirt.