CHAP. XI. DISGUST. 257 served meat which I was eating at our bivouac, and plain- ly showed utter disgust at its softness; whilst I felt titter disgust at my food being touched by a naked sav- age, though his hands did not appear dirty. A smear of soup on a man's beard looks disgusting, though there is of course nothing disgusting in the soup itself. I pre- sume that this follows from the strong association in our minds between the sight of food, however circum- stanced, and the idea of eating it. As the sensation of disgust primarily arises in con- nection with the act of eating or tasting, it is natural that its expression should consist chiefly in movements round the mouth. But as disgust also causes annoyance, it is generally accompanied by a frown, and often by gestures as if to push away or to guard oneself against the offensive object. In the two photographs (figs. 2 and 3, on Plate V.) Mr. Eejlander has simulated this expression with some success. "With respect to the face, moderate disgust is exhibited in various ways; by the mouth being widely opened, as if to let an offensive morsel drop out; by spitting; by blowing out of the pro- truded lips; or by a sound as of clearing the throat. Such guttural sounds are written ach or ugh ; and their utterance is sometimes accompanied by a shudder, the arms being pressed close to the sides and the shoulders raised in the same manner as when horror is experienced.7 Extreme disgust is expressed by movements round the mouth identical with those preparatory to the act of vomiting. The mouth is opened widely, with the upper lip strongly retracted, which wrinkles the sides of the nose, and with the lower lip protruded and everted as much as possible. This latter movement requires the 7 See, to this effect, Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood's Intro- duction to the ' Dictionary of English Etymology,' 2nd edit. 1872, p. xxxvii.