CHAP. XL HELPLESSNESS: 263 turned to the same side, we get the natural language of what is called slyness." Of all the ahove-named complex emotions, Pride., per- haps,, is the most plainly expressed. A proud man ex- hibits his sense of superiority over others by holding his head and body erect. He is haughty (haut), or high, and makes himself appear as large as possible; so 'that metaphorically he is said to be swollen or puffed up with pride. A peacock or a turkey-cock strutting about with puffed-up feathers, is sometimes said to be an emblem of pride.13 The arrogant man looks down on others,, and with lowered eyelids hardly condescends to see them; or he may show his contempt by slight movements/ such as those before described, about the nostrils or lips. Hence the muscle which everts the lower lip has been called the musculus superbus. In some photographs of patients affected by a monomania of pride, sent me by Dr. Crichton Browne., the head and body were held erect, and the mouth firmly closed. This latter action, ex- pressive of decision., follows, I presume., from the proud man feeling perfect self-confidence in himself. The whole expression of pride stands in direct antithesis to that of humility; so that nothing need here be said of the latter state of mind. Helplessness, Impotence: Shrugging the shoulders. — When a man wishes to show that he cannot do some- thing, or prevent something being done, he often raises with a quick movement both shoulders. At the same time, if the whole gesture is completed, he bencls his elbows closely inwards, raises his open hands, turning 18 Gratiolet (De la Phys. p. 351) makes this remark, and has some g-ood observations on the expression of pride. See Sir 0. Bell (' Anatomy of Expression,' p. Ill) on the action of the musculus supcrbus.