CHAP. XI. SHRUGGING THE SHOULDERS. 269 panied in some cases by the other proper movements, is a gesture natural to mankind. This gesture implies an unintentional or unavoidable action on our own part, or one that we cannot perform; or an action performed by another person which we ! cannot prevent. It accompanies such speeches as, " It f was not my fault;" " It is impossible for me to grant j this favour; " cc He must follow his own course, I can- i not stop him." Shrugging the shoulders likewise ex- presses patience, or the absence of any intention to re- l sist. Hence the muscles which raise the shoulders are ) sometimes called, as I have been informed by an artist, \ " the patience muscles." Shylock the Jew, says, " Sig-nor Antonio, many a time and oft In the Rialto have yo'u rated me About my monies and usances; Still have I borne it with a patient shrug." Merchant of Venice, act i. sc. 3. Sir C. Bell has given 14 a life-like figure of a man, y who is shrinking back from some terrible danger, and is ; on the point of screaming out in abject terror. He is f represented with his shoulders lifted up almost to his i ears; and this at once declares that there is no thought ' of resistance. j As shrugging the shoulders generally implies "I 1 cannot do this or that," so by a slight change, it some- times implies " I won't do it." The movement then ex- \ presses a dogged determination not to act. Olmsted describes15 an Indian in Texas as giving a great shrug ^ to his shoulders, when he was informed that a party of men were Germans and not Americans, thus expressing that he would have nothing to do with them. Sulky and 14 * Anatomy of Expression,' p. 166. 18 * Journey through Texas,' p. 352.