272 SIGHTS OF AFFIRMATION CHAP. XI. I I pressed in many parts of the world "by merely shrugging the shoulders, without turning inwards the elbows and opening the hands. The man or child who is obstinate, or one who is resigned to some great misfortune, has in neither ease any idea of resistance by active means; and he expresses this state of mind, by simply keeping his shoulders raised; or lie may possibly fold his arms across his breast. /Signs of affirmation or approval, and of negation or disapproval: nodding and shaking the head.—I was curicms to ascertain how far the common signs used by us in affirmation and negation were general throughout the world. These signs are indeed to a certain extent expressive of our feelings, as we give a vertical nod of approval with a smile to our children, when we approve of their conduct; and shake our heads laterally with a frown, when we disapprove. "With infants, the first act of denial consists in refusing food; and I repeatedly noticed with rny own infants, that they did so by with- drawing their heads laterally from the "breast, or from anything offered them in a spoon. In accepting food and taking it into their mouths, they incline their heads forwards. Since making these observations I have been informed that the same idea had occurred to Charma.17 It deserves notice that in accepting or taking food, there is only a single movement forward, and a single nod im- plies an affirmation. On the other hand, in refusing food, especially if it be pressed on them, children fre- quently move their heads several times from side to side., as we do in shaking our heads in negation. Moreover,, in the ease of refusal, the head is not rarely thrown back- wards, or the mouth is closed, so that these movements 1T c Essai sur le Langage,' 2nd edit. 1846. I am much in- debted to Miss Wedgwood for having given me this in- formation, with an extract from the work.