274 SIGNS OF AFFIRMATION CHAP. XI. « coast, and, according to Gaika, by the Kafirs of South Africa, though with these latter people Mrs. Barber has never seen a lateral shake used as a negative. With re- spect to the Australians, seven observers agree that a nod is given in affirmation; five agree about a lateral shake in negation, accompanied or not by some word; but Mr. Dyson Lacy has never seen this latter sign in Queens- land, and Mr. Buhner says that in Gipps' Land a nega- tive is expressed by throwing the head a little backwards and putting out thrtongue. At the northern extremity of the continent, near Torres Straits, the natives when uttering a negative " don't shake the head with it, but holding up the right hand, shake it by turning it half round and back again two or three times." 22 The throw- ing back of the head with a cluck of the tongue is said to be used as a negative by the modern Greeks and Turks, the latter people expressing yes by a movement like that made by us when we shake our heads.23 The Abys- sinians, as I am informed by Captain Speedy, express a negative by jerking the head to the right shoulder, to- • gether with a slight cluck, the mouth being closed; an affirmation is expressed by the head being thrown back- wards and the eyebrows raised for an instant. The Tagals of Luzon, in the Philippine Archipelago, as I hear from Dr. Adolf Meyer, when they say " yes," also throw the head backwards. According to the Rajah Brooke, the Dyaks of Borneo express an affirmation by raising the eyebrows, and a negation by slightly contracting them, together with a peculiar look from the eyes. With. the Arabs on the Nile, Professor and Mrs. Asa Gray concluded that nodding in affirmation was rare, whilst. 22 Mr. J. B. Jukes, ' Letters and Extracts,' &c. 1871, p. 248. 23 F. Lieber, ' On the Vocal Sounds,' &c. p. 11. Tylor, ibid. p. 53.