278 SURPRISE. .CHAP. XL CHAPTER XII. SUEPBISE—ASTONISHMENT—FEAK—HOREOK. Surprise, astonishment—Elevation of the eyebrows—Open- ing the mouth—Protrusion oi the lips—Gestures accom- panying surprise—Admiration—Fear—Terror—Erection of the hair—Contraction of the platysma muscle—Dila- tation of the pupils—Horror—Conclusion. ATTENTION., if sudden and close, graduates into sur- prise; and this into astonishment; and this into stupe- fied amazement. The latter frame of mind is closely akin to terror. Attention is shown by the eyebrows being slightly raised; and as this state increases into surprise, they are raised to a much greater extent, with the eyes and mouth widely open. The raising of the eyebrows is necessary in order that the eyes should be opened quickly and widely; and this movement produces trans- verse wrinkles across the forehead. The degree to which the eyes and mouth are opened corresponds with the de- gree of surprise felt; but these movements must be co- ordinated; for a widely opened mouth with eyebrows only slightly raised results in a meaningless grimace, as Dr. Duchenne has shown in one of his photographs.1 On the other hand, a person may often be seen to pre- tend surprise by merely raising his eyebrows. Dr. Duchenne has given a photograph of an old man 1 ' Mecanisme de la Physionomie,' Album, 1862, p. 42.