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278                                 SURPRISE.                         .CHAP. XL



Surprise, astonishment—Elevation of the eyebrows—Open-
ing the mouth—Protrusion oi the lips—Gestures accom-
panying surprise—Admiration—Fear—Terror—Erection
of the hair—Contraction of the platysma muscle—Dila-
tation of the pupils—Horror—Conclusion.

ATTENTION., if sudden and close, graduates into sur-
prise; and this into astonishment; and this into stupe-
fied amazement. The latter frame of mind is closely
akin to terror. Attention is shown by the eyebrows being
slightly raised; and as this state increases into surprise,
they are raised to a much greater extent, with the eyes
and mouth widely open. The raising of the eyebrows
is necessary in order that the eyes should be opened
quickly and widely; and this movement produces trans-
verse wrinkles across the forehead. The degree to which
the eyes and mouth are opened corresponds with the de-
gree of surprise felt; but these movements must be co-
ordinated; for a widely opened mouth with eyebrows
only slightly raised results in a meaningless grimace, as
Dr. Duchenne has shown in one of his photographs.1
On the other hand, a person may often be seen to pre-
tend surprise by merely raising his eyebrows.

Dr. Duchenne has given a photograph of an old man

1 ' Mecanisme de la Physionomie,' Album, 1862, p. 42.