CHAP. XII. ASTONISHMENT. 285 often protruded, the various sounds which are then com- monly uttered can apparently be accounted for. But sometimes a strong expiration alone is heard; thus Laura Bridgman, when amazed, rounds and protrudes her lips,, opens them, and breathes strongly.9 One of the com- monest sounds is a deep Oh; and this would naturally follow, as explained by Helmholtz, from the mouth being moderately opened and the lips protruded. On a quiet night some rockets were fired from the f Beagle/ in a little creek at Tahiti, to amuse the natives; and as each rocket was let of? there was absolute silence, but this was invariably followed by a deep groaning Oh> resounding all round the bay. Mr. Washington Matthews says that the North American Indians express astonishment by a groan; and the negroes on the "West Coast of Africa, ac- cording to Mr. Winwood Beade, protrude their lips, and make a sound like keigJi, heigh. If the mouth is not much opened, whilst the lips are considerably protruded, a blowing, hissing, or whistling noise is produced. Mr. E. Brough Smith informs me that an Australian from the interior was taken to the theatre to see an acrobat rapidly turning head over heels: "he was greatly aston- ished, and protruded his lips, making a noise with his mouth as if blowing out a match." According to Mr. Buhner the Australians, when surprised, utter the ex- clamation Jkorki, " and to do this the mouth is drawn out as if going to whistle." We Europeans often whistle as a sign of surprise; thus, in a recent novel10 it is said, "here the man expressed his astonishment and disap- probation by a prolonged whistle." A Kafir girl, as Mr. J. Mansel Weale informs me, " on hearing of the high price of an article, raised her eyebrows and whistled just 0 Lieber, * On the Vocal Sounds of Laura Bridgman,' Smithsonian Contributions, 1851, vol. ii. p. 7. 10 * Wenderholme,' vol. ii. p. 91.