CHAP. XIL 1TEAR. 293 nostrils themselves are raised and extended. The eyes are widely opened, and beneath them the skin appears swollen; the pupils are large. The forehead is wrinkled transversely in many folds, and at the inner extremities of the eyebrows it is strongly furrowed in diverging lines, produced by the powerful and persistent contraction of the corrugators. Mr. Bell has also described19 an agony of terror and of despair, which he witnessed in a murderer, whilst carried to the place of execution in Turin. " On each side of the car the officiating priests were seated; and in the centre sat the criminal himself. It was impossible to witness the condition of this unhappy wretch without terror; and yet, as if impelled by some strange infatua- tion, it was equally impossible not to gaze upon an ob- ject so wild, so full of horror. He seemed about thirty- five years of age; of large and muscular form; his coun- tenance marked "by strong and savage features; half naked, pale as death, agonized with terror, every limb strained in anguish, his hands clenched convulsively, the sweat breaking out on his bent and contracted brow, lie kissed incessantly the figure of our Saviour, painted on the flag which was suspended before him; but with an agony of wildness and despair, of which nothing ever exhibited on the stage can give the slightest conception." I will add only one other case, illustrative of a man •utterly prostrated by terror. An atrocious murderer of two persons was brought into a hospital, under the mis- taken impression that he had poisoned himself; and Dr. W. Ogle carefully watched him the next morning, while he was being handctiffed and taken away by the police. His pallor was extreme, and his prostration so great that 19 * Observations on Italy,' 1825, p. 48, as quoted in ' The Anatomy of Expression,' p. 168.