298 FEAR. CHAP, XII. the control of the will; but almost every one, if told to draw the corners of Ms mouth backwards and downwards with great force, brings it into action. I have, however, heard of a man who can voluntarily act on it only on one ' side of his neck. Sir C. Bell21 and others have stated that this muscle is strongly contracted under the influence of fear; and Duchenne insists so strongly on its importance in the expression of this emotion, that he.calls it the muscle of fright.22 He admits, however, that its contraction is quite inexpressive unless associated with widely open eyes and mouth. He has given a photograph (copied and reduced in the accompanying woodcut) of the same old man as on former occasions, with his eyebrows strong- ly raised, his mouth opened, and the platysma contracted, all by means of galvanism. The original photograph was shown to twenty-four persons, and they were sep- arately asked, without any explanation being given, what expression was intended: twenty instantly answered, " intense fright" or " horror; " three said pain, and one extreme discomfort. Dr. Duchenne has given another photograph of the same old man, with the platysma contracted, the eyes and mouth opened, and the eye- brows rendered oblique, by means of galvanism. The expression thus induced is very striking (see Plate VII. fig. 2); the obliquity of the eyebrows adding the appear- ance of great mental distress. The original was shown to fifteen persons; twelve answered terror or horror, and three agony or great suffering. From these cases, and from an examination of the other photographs given by Dr. Duchenne, together with his remarks thereon, I think there can be little doubt that the contraction of 21 * Anatomy of Expression,' p. 168. 22 Mecanisme de la Phys. Humaine, Album, Legende xi.