CHAP. XIII. BLTJSHINGL 321 t the gaze of those present, so that he almost invariably casts down his eyes or looks askant. As th&ce generally exists at the same time a strong wish to avoid the ap- pearance of shame, a vain attempt is made to look di- rect at the person who causes this feeling; and the an- tagonism between these opposite tendencies leads to vari- ous restless movements in the eyes. I have noticed two . ladies who, whilst blushing, to which they are very liable, have thus acquired, as it appears, the oddest trick of in- cessantly blinking their eyelids with extraordinary rapidity. An intense blush is sometimes accompanied by a slight effusion of tears;21 and this, I presume, is due to the lacrymal glands partaking of the increased supply of blood, which we know rushes into the capillaries of the adjoining parts, including the retina. Many writers, ancient and modern, have noticed the foregoing movements; and it has already been shown that the aborigines in various parts of the world often exhibit their shame by looking downwards or askant, or by restless movements of their eyes. Ezra cries out (ch. ix. 6), <e 0, my God! I am ashamed, and blush to lift up my head to thee, my God." In Isaiah (ch. 1. 6) we meet with the words, " I hid not my face from shame." Seneca remarks (Epist. xi. 5) " that the Eoman players hang down their heads, fix their eyes on the ground and keep them lowered, but are unable to blush in acting shame." According to Macrobius, who lived in the fifth century (e Saturnalia/ B. vii. c. 11), " Nat- ural philosophers assert that nature being moved by shame spreads the blood before herself as a veil, as we 21 Burgess, ibid. pp. 181, 182. Boerhaave also noticed (as quoted by Gratiolet, ibid. p. 361) the tendency to the secretion of tears during1 intense blushing. Mr. Bulmer, as we have seen, speaks of the " watery eyes " of the chil- dren of the Australian aborigines when ashamed.