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Full text of "Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals"

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CHAP. XIV.                 AND SUMMARY.                          349

case of extreme pain, fear, and grief, and they have ulti-
mately caused complete exhaustion; they are conse-
quently expressed chiefly by negative signs and by pros-
tration. Again, there are other emotions, such as that
of affection, which do not commonly lead to action of any
kind, and consequently are not exhibited by any strongly
marked outward signs. Affection indeed, in as far as it                        f

is a pleasurable sensation, excites the ordinary signs, of
pleasure.                                                                                             \

On the other hand, many of the effects due to the                         |

excitement of the nervous system seem to be quite in-                          1

dependent of the flow of nerve-force along the channels       .                 ;

which have been rendered habitual by former exertions                         (

of the will.   Such effects, which often reveal the state                         ,%

of mind of the person thus affected, cannot at present
be explained; for instance, the change of colour in the                         |

hair from extreme terror or grief,the cold sweat and                       . |v

the trembling of the muscles from fear,the modified
secretions of the intestinal canal,and the failure of                        |

certain glands to act.                                                                           I

Notwithstanding that much remains unintelligible                        f

in our present subject, so many expressive movements          '              v;

and actions can be explained to a certain extent through                        #

the above three principles, that we may hope hereafter                        j

to see all explained by these or by closely analogous

Actions of all kinds, if regularly accompanying any
state of the mind, are at once recognized as expressive.
These may consist of movements of any part of the body,
as the wagging of a dog's tail, the shrugging of a man's
shoulders, the erection of the hair, the. exudation of
perspiration, the state of the capillary circulation, la-
boured breathing, and the use of the vocal or other sound-
producing instruments. Even insects express anger,                 ,,
terror, jealousy, and love by their stridulation. With ^ -