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Full text of "The first telegraph"

' FIRST T V?H 






S/l t 



TH3 FIEoT EELECKAPH 



_^ 








-1- 



EHE PIK3I :H 

/i. urTRODucuoir 

The telegraph has linked together more closely the 
different races of thi the band of tion, 

has made it possible to transmit messages with the speed of 

; md has brought into touch the remotest points on 
the globe which places friends, relatives, and lovers ever 
in reach of each other. The telegraph that has bound more 
closely the kingdom of Sod was conceived, designed, and 
forced on a skeptic world I nel ?. S. Morse, an irtist. 

Perhaps Morse did not discover any new principle 
ad though he did incorporate the ideas of friends and 
associates, the invention was truly his. He conceived of 
practical application of the discoveries of others ad 

f'iith in his vision. He realized the value of such an in- 
strument to humanity and suffered the privations of poverty 
to make his gift of inestimable value. He never claimed 
to have made any remarkable discovery in connection with the 
telegraph but he did claim the invention of the first nracti- 
e il telegraph. The world at large has accorded to Morse 

linst the claims of many others the credit for the first 
telegraph ana its inseparable companion, the Llorse Code. 






TH RST TEL H 

2, •'" rcrcciTi 

s Jince the beginning of creation men have realized 

t need for communication beyond the carriage of the voice \ 
but until comparatively recent there has been a limited - 
of signals for distant communication, military operations 
have had the greatest need of signals and have been the source 
and Incentive for most of the semaphore. 

King Agamemnon was net p.tisfied to send word of the 
egress of the 3iege of Troy by the slow couriers. To send 
the news of the battle to "rc-ece and his r ueen he nlanted 
beacon fires on the tops of Lit. Ida, Mt. AthoB, Mt.Ci' n, 

and intervening pc:nt3 of commanding height, Thu 
the news of the Pall of Troy carried to far off Ireece. The 

ly Egyptians and " used fire, smoke, to 

transmit their mess tower to I a the >f 

China signals were passed by light or by fl 
x Probably the first marine signaling was done by 

Theseus. When ; into battle he hoisted a black Bail. 

If he wa; victor he hoisted a red sail. \fter one battle 
he neglected to raise his red sail and his father iegeus 
drowned himself believing his son killed. 

The most common method of signaling was by couriers 
or runners. The Greeks, Romans, and \ztecs used couri^ 



-3- 



.t; 

almost exclusively. In our own country the Pony Express Riders 
were couriers. ".Then the distance wis too great ." ner 

they had a relay of runners. This relay introduced a - ; 4 - 
bility of errors. Errors were also : ble in the methods 

used by the Persians and lauls. Sentinala were stationed 
far apart as their voices would carry and thus the message 
was carried from one sentinal to the oth< r, Ceasar sent the 
news of the massacre of the Ho mans from Orleans to \uvergne, 

j 11 stance of 150 miles by this method. 

' The large mirrors of the " i - r^bably 

used to send signals by light flashes. News of the Battle 
of Marathon was conveyed I fc flashes from the shield 

of the Persians. These methods were the forerunners of the 
Heliograph using the Morse Code, Alt r the Ore at used 

sound for the transmission of his me s . 

■antic megaphone, a drawing of which is pres In the 

Vatican. 

Clepsydra was an ingeneous device for signaling 
prearranged messages. T 3imilar I 'lied wit or 

^nd ha' ' itlet faucets at the bott re re used, 

it the sendir. 1 ther at the receiving . The 

5S were printed on paper ' iplicate and placed at 
the same points on the t*o tubes. The sending station 



.-4- 



.THE FIE3T TE3 

. jwed a light when It was rejdy to give .. message, 
the answering light from the receiving station was lit the 
operators it both stations opened the faucets. The light 
at the sending station was extingui 'he top of the 

water column was opposite the desired message. The receiv- 
ing station received the message by turning off the faucet 
when the light went out, noting the position of the top 
the column. 

^ itch towers were built in many parts of the world 

for distant communication and rapid transmission of signals. 

re an w h.tA Gallic towers still standing in Franco. 

Hannibal built many of them .nd Spain. Colored 

tunics and . were often used in battle with prearran 

meanings. The American Indians use. ":e puffs and arr 

for their signals. 

rere more needed than land signals, 
and mere cult to convey. Until the middle of the 

seventeenth century these signals were limited. Mes rs 

were dispatched in small boats, but this method was si 
and iaprac""' ttle. With the advent of naval gun3, 

signal guns were conceived. Another method o . 
f l a number of times from a yard I. 

Either Admiral Sir '.Villiam Venn or Ja Lie 

Duke of 5fork invented the signal flag used by the Lea. 



■5- 



THE FIBST TELEGRAPH 

The position of one fl 3 varied. It was not until 1780 

that \drniral Kerapenfeldt thought of adding other signal 
flags which are still used. They consist of seta of alphabet, 
numeral and special flags. Special combinations of letters 

e used with code me * ;s. re is an international c 

in use for intercommunication between ships of different 
nations. Admiral Colomb devised the light flashes for night 
jnals using the Mors* Code. 

The TTig ystem is one of large application and 

is still used because it is simple and does not require <my 
instruments. It consist of a standard code depending on the 
position of flags or arras. The popularity is shown by its 
use in the Array, Navy, Boy scouts, and many other organiza- 
ati ons. 

at of the signals now in use were developed 
after the 19th Century, using the Morse Code. The system 
of communication of the German Irmy which was one of the 
first to be highly systematized wae loped in 1902, . lals 

by sight with the Morse Code became popular. The Hel; 
graph was used in India and Africa by the British and especi- 
ally in the British-Boer ifar. The British llavy used flashing 
lights while the United States and other navies used fixed 
colored lights. Host sight and sound signals have now been 
displaced by Wireless with the exception of the Wig-Wag 3ys1 



-e- 



THE FIRST TELEGRVPH 

The disadv ; of most of those systems of go- 
munication has been their limited application. In many cases it 
was impossible with unfavorable atmospheric conditions. ',7hen 
it was cloudy, foggy, raining, snowing or hailing the trans- 
si oa of messages by light or in any way dependent on sight, 
.ired or impossible, in the cU a and hue of battle, 
sound signals were impracticable, liven the most ingenious 
devices were not good for any distance er.ee pt by relays which 
introduced errors and occupied time. Therefore it was not 
until the advent of the electric telegraph that distant com- 
munication was made _, . . Ible under all circumstances and 
, ad enough to be of rrj e. 

dl OF TKLEaiaPH 

,i telegraph was impossible or if possible im- 
practical without electricity, because of its intricate machinery 
and the serious effects of natures obstacles. Therefor the 
history of the telegraph is the history of electricity and 
magnet! sm. 

It was many centuries ago that a Gfreek Jhepherd 
:nes discovered lodestone. It was pro 
his name that the attractive properties der' Its name. 
The ancient people knew of the property of amber 'tract 
straw,- The term electricity came from the (Jreek word 



.T_ 



3JHE FIE3T ?H 

Jluctron meaning amber. Chinese and Persians experimented 
with lode stone. The Romans knew that lode stone would attract 
iron even through a stone wall. Magicians of ancient times 
often mystified their subjects by the application of the 
netic property of lodeatone. Benjamin Franklin with 1 
iotiff kite demonstrated that frictional and atmospheric 
electricity were one and the same thing. 

The first conception of an electric telegraph 
t be credited to an unknown author of the eighteenth 
century. in article appeared in the Scots 'Jagasine on 
February 17, 1755 signed by G. '..:. proposing or suggesting 
an electric telegraph. His plan was to use one wire for 
each letter of the alphabet and have staticly charge discs 
it the receiving station ffith each letter which would he 
attracted by the opposite charge transmitted over the wires. 

The battery was invented in the nineteenth century 
."rrnishing a practical source of electricity. Hans Christian 
Oersted of Denmark discovered that electricity flowing in a 
conductor produced a magnetic field at right anglss I ts 
direction of flow. Oersted made this discovery when he noted 
that a compass needle was deflected when it r. . :-ught near 

a wire conducting electricity. \ Frenchman named impere 
found that this magnetism could be Increased by passing cur. 
through a coiled conductor. ?a,raday unearthed the principle 





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THI-: FIRST TELEGRAPH 




of the dynamo, showing a conductor moving in a magnetic field 




aid produce electricity. Sauss and '.7eber used this principle 




for a telegraph by having a magnetic key generate current 



In a line and ittract a magnet it the sending station the 
motion of which was magnified by a mirror. 

Steinheil U3cd a call bell, made a recorder of 
dots and dashes on a ribbon of paper, and also was the 
first to use the earth as the return circuit. Davy used 
a needle telegraph with galvanic current. \rago discovered 
th bar of soft iron could be magnified by placing it in 

a coil and passing a current through the coil. There seems 
to be a difference of opinion as to who invented the relay. 
Towers gives Davy the credit for the Invention while Horsford 
says that Morse made this discovery. Several authors attribute 
the relay to Joseph Henry's efforts. 
/ Though every principle embodied in the electro- 

magnectic telegraph as patented by Morse had been demonstrated 
before he used it, it is reasonable to suppose that he re- 
discovered some of them. The knowledge of electricity was 
not very well circulated and fev,' men had a complete knowledge 
of the field. 

4. THE LIFE OF MORSE 

Since Llorse did more than anyone else to give us 
satisfactory method of communication and suffered so actuely 



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THE FIRST TE\ "E 

in making us appreciate the blessing, it seems "but justice 
to include a brief sketch of his life, 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse was born at Charlestown, 
Mass. in 1791. It is interesting to note that his birth- 
place was a mile from that of Benjamin Franklin, another 
giver of gifts. He was of Puritan stock. Ills father who 
was English was a divine and the author of the first notible 
geography. It the age of seven he went to school in Indover, 
Mass. and prepared for Phillips Academy. After graduating 
from the academy he went to Yale. 7/hile there he gained 
his first knowledge of electricity. Morse attended Pro- 
fessor Day's lectures and experiments on electricity and 
was interested. Jeremiah Day was professor of natural 
philosophy and Imericas ablest teacher. The principle which 
interest him the most was that electric fluid was made visible 
when the circuit was interrupted. Though he was midly in- 
terested in these experiments his main interest was art. 
V7hile still at Yale he painted minatures for $5. a piece 
and this helped defray his expenses. He graduated from 
Yale in 1810 and devoted himself to the study of art while 
depending on his parents for support. He became the friend 
and pupil of "Washington Alls ton, a famous painter. In the 
year 1811 he accompanied Ulston to England. In London he 
met /feet, a painter of world-wide reputation. At the suggest- 
ion of '//est he entered in a contest or exhibition, a model 







-10- 








THE EI EST TELEGMPH 




of Hercules which he 


had made for a painting; he won the 


offered pri se, 


. Morse 


lived in London during the war of 1812 


and though he 


lived 


in poverty he was unmolested. 


As the 


man who was destined 


to make communication nearly 


instantan- 


eous left for 


home, 


the news of the defeat of Napo 


lean reach- 


ed London two 


days a 


,fter the occurrence. Upon hi a 


return to 


arica he be< 


:ame a 


wandering painter and made his 


li"i ng 


painting portraits. 


In 1818 he went to Charleston 


, >j . L • , 



following the advice of his uncle. He was properous 

Charleston and married Lucre ti a '.Valkf-r of Concord, I'.Y. 

\fter four year of success in the South he returned North 

md again faced failure. He could not sell his large historical 

paintings though he could make a living by painting portraits. 

In 1825 shortly after nis return north his wife died. He 

assisted in organizing the National Academy of Design and 

was elected its first president. In 1829 he left for Europe 

on his second trip and soent three years principally in 

Paris and Rome. 

5. . . AND THE TELEGrAPH 

On the packet ship oully, the birthplace of the 
tele graph, Morse returned from France. It the luncheon 
table Dr. Charles E, Jackson exhibited an electro-magnet 
he had procured in Europe and performed some experiments. 
Morse discussed with Dr. Jackson and other passengers the 



-11- 



THE JTIE3T TELEGMPH 

possibility of electro-magnet ism in telegraphy. On this 
ship Morse had the conception of the teiegra^i. xn it ffas 
to make him famous and a benefactor of the world. Ob 
leaving the ship he said to its Commander, "'.Veil, Captain, 
should you hear of the telegraph one of these days as the 
wonder of the world, remember that the discovery was made 
on board the good ship Sully". The idea of using an electro- 
de t for a receiver and of using dots and dashes for the 
letters of the alphabet was original with him. Later Tlr. 
Jackson claimed the ideas, but at this time he said they 
were impractical. Morse was the only one on board who had 
faith in the electro-magnetic telegraph. 

He made little progress with the telegraph between 
183^ and 1035 because all of his time was occupied with art 
to make a living. In 1835 he was made Professor of The 
Literature of the Pine irts of Design at the College of the 
City of Hew York. His professorship gave him more leisiire, 
so the telegraph occupied more of his thoughts. Professor 
Gale, a chemistry teacher at the same college aided Morse. 
dale brought to his attention experiments that had been 
performed by Joseph Henry. Gale suggested that he substitute 
many turns of small wire for the few turns of heavy wire that 
he had been using. Some believe that Gale suggested the 
relay after reading of Professor Henry's use of it. 



- X i-i — 



THE FIRST TELEGRAPH 

In 1837 he completed a small model of his tele- 
graph for experimental purposes. In the same year the House 
of Representatives ordered the secretary of the Treasury to 
investigate telegraphs for possible use by the U.S. Morse 
immediately set out to make a working model that would transmit 
messages for ten miles or more. 'The financial and mechanical 
aid of Alfred Vail was an important factor in the completion 
of this instrument. Alfred Vail was the son of the head of 
the Speedwell Iron Works of Morriston, N. J. On Sept. 23,1837 
an agreement was drawn up between Vail and Morse. By the 
terms of this agreement Vail was to construct the apparatus 
at his own expense, suitable for exhibition to Congress and 
to receive one-fourth interest in the invention. Shortly 
after a caveat was filed at the Patent Office. In 1838 the 
telegraph was in working order and was demonstrated before 
the older Vail. 

6. INTRODUCTION OF INSTRUMENT 

This instrument was exhibited in New York and Phila- 
delphia without arousing any general interest. There were 
many who were interested in it as a curiosity but few believed 
it practical. Hon, F.C.J. Smith, Chairman of the Commerce 
Committee, was interest. Smith prevailed upon the committee 
to attend a demonstration. This demonstration was made in 



.-13- 



THil FIE.iT TELEGRAPH 

Feb. 1838 over XO miles of v»ire and was entirely success- 
ful. The whole committee was enthusiati cally interested. 
Thus a bill appropriating 030,000 for a test of the tele- 
graph between '.Vashington and Baltimore was favorably re- 
ported. 

Smith then resigned to fight for the measure and 
to take an interest in the invention. Sixteen shares in 
the invention .rere distributed is follows; Morse - nine, 
Jmith-four, Vail-two, and Gale- one. Morse went to London 
to get a British patent but they would not even grant him 
a hearing. In France he was better received but was unable 
to obtain i patent. At this time Dr, Jackson -t resented his 
claim to Morse's indention. \t first he only claimed parts 
of it but finally he laid claim to the whole invention, 

.her passengers of the Sully did not support Dr, Jackson 
in his claim that he had suggested the invention to Morse, 
i political campaign delayed the action of congress. It 
was in this period waiting for the action of isa that 

rse suffered the most. He - ithout aid an3 nearly 

starved to death. Smith was claimed by the political campaign. 
,le ft%a of limited means and therefore could be of no 

nanoial aid. Sven in the supreme test Morse had confid- 
ence in the ultimate outcome of his endeavors. On June 
1840 Morse took out his patent, the first to be granted for 



-14- 



SHL FIE 

.* practical electro-magnetic telegraph. The House of Repre- 
sentatives passed, the bill appropriate 0,000 by six votes. 
Horse held little hope of it:-; ing tto id- 
vised by a friend to jive up the project. Miss Annie 
Kllsworth brought Morse the unexpected news of the passage of 
the bill by the Senate and Morse was 30 overjoyed he promised 
that she should dictate the first m< sent by telegraph 
for any great .J- stance. Uork began immediately on the 
ington - Baltimore Line . ' Cornell had invented a machine for 

ing wires under ground in a pipe which it was e'ecided to 
use. Fisher, Sale, Tail, and Cornell aided in the construct- 
ion work, Cornell was the roan who later founded Cornell Univer- 
sity. After the wire had been run out ;•"' Balti- 
more it was found that 1 ethod of undergr is 

re than half of the appropriation h on 

ent. It lecided to string the wires on poles. 

wires were passed throu. lea bored near the top of the 

poles and bottle neck insulators were used to insulate the 
wire from the poles. The construction was completed on i 
5, 1844. On May 24, 1844 in the presence of members of 
Congress and many other notables Horse sent from the Supreme 
Court room at the suggestion of Mies Ellsworth the message, 
;th Sod Wrought'.'. Vail in Baltimore received the 
ge and repeated it. ,/hile many wer< J . the 

extraordinary feat they probably e been 90 much 

i but fo: ther incident, ri 



-15- 




jTES 




Convention in session " ltiraore that nominated Wright 


for Vice -President before consulting him. 


Lght was in 


ton so Vail sent the m righ 


t' s nomi r: iti on to 


d Morse communicated with V/right. 


He declined the 


nomination and e sent the message dec 


Lining the nomination 


to Vail. When Vail presented the mess 


to the Baltimore 


Convention they were astounded. This incident insured the 


.ccess of the telegraph. 




y The instrument wis simple. The 


sending ratue 


consisted of a pair of cells and a key to 


ind break the 


circuit. The recdivii 


sle ctro-magnet 


and armature. This electro-magnet was in 


circuit of 


the other send in ti oil. '.7hen the ] 


I ; 


sendi: ' m the a: .cte: 


i to th< 


thus closing .an ry circuit th ;t operated ' rec rd- 


ing instrument. The recording instrument 


was an arm with 


a point that made irapresei one record 


boa, Th 


arm made the impressions when it attr 


icted by an electro- 


magnet in the auxiliary circuit. The 


re s s i on s be i n g d aah- 


es when the key at ending Btation 


3 closed a length 

• 


of time and a dot when i1 d for 


only ' t. 


Photoji origianl rec 


Drding instrument 


and the original key need in 1 itting 


e 


ire appended. These insturments are kept 


the U.3.K tti onal 



-16- 



TIIE FIRST EELEGE4PH 

Museum of Tasking ton. The ty >wn by one of the photo- 

i. model of the first type used bj ito- 

ra.it ic making and br ; of the sending circuit. The 

fourth photograph is of a model of the first improved re- 
cording instrument. The patents are copies of the first 

1 second patents taken out by Morse with one reissued 
patent following each.' 

y The value of the telegraph we ill know today, 

but Morse's tasS Hot only one of 'ention but 

one of instruction of the people to ipj eciate his in- 
vention. He suffered and strived to give to ~ insti 
ment which has becorao indi spensible . There have been 
many attachs on his character by people who thought or 
pretended that he hid usurped undue reward. His character 
is .. le. 

Th' invent" tdmir'd and 

each how, he 
To be the inventor miss'd, so 

easy it seemed 
nee found, which yet unfound 

most would have thought 
Imp os si ble 

MILTON 



-17- 

BIOBLIQGRAPHY 

Hereford's Address at the Morse Memorial 

E. :.:. IJjrford 
Morse's Patents - toos Kendall 
Masters of Space - W. K. Towers 
History of Electro-Magnetic Telegraph 

Alonzo B. Cornell 
Letters and Journals of S. F. 3. Morse 

E. L.Morse 
-lorial of 3. F.E.Morse - U.S. Congress 



THE FIRST T3 iPH 




THE j'IEoT T -H 



\ 




D 



! 



i 






&B 




; first r : 




United States Patent Office* 



SAMUEL P. J J. MOUSE, OF NEW YDKK, N. Y. 

IMPROVEMENT IN THE MODE OF COMMUNICATING INFORMATION BY SIGNALS BY THE APPLICATION OF 

ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. 



Specification Forming part of Letters Patent No, 1,017, dated .hints 20, 18j0. 



To all whom it may concern i 

Beittoownthnt I, the undereignccl, Samuel 
P. li. Mouse, of the city, county, and Stale of 
New York, have invented a new and useful ma- 
chine and system of signs for transmitting in- 
telligence between distant, points by the means 
of anew npplicat ion and effect of elect ro-magnet- 
ism in producing sounds and signs, or cither, 
and also for recording permanently by the same 
means and application and effect of electro- 
magnetism any signs thus pre d need and rep- 
resenting intelligence transmitted, as before 
named, between distant points: and 1 denom- 
inate said invention the "American Electro- 
Magnetic Telegraph," of which the following is 
a full and exact description, to wit: 

Jt consists of the following parts; first, of j 
a circuit of electric or galvanic conductors from j 
any generator of elect rieity or galvanism, and 
of elect! o-niagnots at any one or more points 
in said circuit; second, a system of signs by 
which numerals and words represented by nu- 
merals, and thereby sentences of words as well 
as of numerals, and letters of any extent and 
couibiii;*f,>nii t each, are communicated to any 
one or more points in the before-described cir- 
cuit; third, a set of type adapted to regulate 
the communication of the above- mentioned 
signs, also cases for convenient keeping of the , 
type, and rules in which to set and use the tj pc; ' 
fourth, an apparatus called I he ''straight port- ! 
ride," and another called the ''circular port- j 
rule," each of which regulates the movement 
of the type when in use, and also that of the 
signal-lever; fifth, a signal-lever which breaks 
and connects the circuit of conductors; sixth, 
a register. which records permanently the signs 
communicated at any desired points in the cir- 
cuit: seventh, a dictionary or vocabulary of 
words, to which are prefixed numerals for the 
uses hereinafter described; eighth, modes of 
laying the circuit of conductors. 

The circuit of conductors may be made of 
any metal — such as copper or iron wire or 
strips of copper or bon, or of cord or twine, or 
other substances — gilt, silvered, or covered 
with any thin metal leaf properly insulated and 
in the ground, or through or beneath the water, 
or through the air. Hy causing an electric or 
galvanic current to pass through the circuit of 
conductors laid as aforesaid by means of any 



generator of electricity or galvanism to one or 
more electro-magnets placed at any point or 
points in said circuit, the magnetic power thus 
concentrated in such magnet or magnets is 
used for the purposes of producing sounds and 
visible signs, and for permanently recording 
the latter at any and each of said points, at the 
pleasure of the operator, and in the manner 
hereinafter described — that is to say, by using 
the system of signs which is formed of the fol- 
lowing parts and variations, viz: 

Signs of numerals consist, first, of ten dots 
or punelttres, made in measured distances of 
equal extent from each other, upon paper or 
any substitute for paper, and in number corre- 
sponding with the numeral desired to be rep- 
resented. Tints one dot or puncture for the 
uumer.il 1, two dots or punctures for tire nu- 
meral 2, three of the same for 3, four fur 1, live 
for ."i,six for fi, seven for 7, eight for S, nine for 
J), and ten fori), as particularly represented on 
the annexed drawing, marked Example 1, Mode 
1, in which is also included a second character, 
to represent a cipher, if preferred. 

Signs of numerals consist, secondly, of marks 
made us in the ease of dots, and particularly rep- 
resented on the annexed drawing, marked lix- 
ample 1, Mode 2. 

Signs of mi mentis consist, thirdly, of char- 
acters drawn at measured distances in the 
shape of Ihe teeth of a common saw by the use 
of a pencil or any instrument for marking. 
The points corresponding to the teeth of a saw 
are in number to correspond with the numeral 
desired to be represented, as in the case of dots 
or marks in the other modes described, and as 
particularly represented in the annexed draw- 
ing, marked Example 1, Mode 3. 

Higns of numerals consist, fourthly, of dots 
and lines separately and conjunctively used as 
follows, the numerals 1, 2, 3, and -I being repre- 
sented by dots, as in Mode 1, first given above: 
The numeral 5 is represented by a line equal 
in length to the space between the two dots of 
any other numeral; (Sis represented by the ad- 
dition of a dot. to the line representing 5; 7 is 
represented by the addition of two dots to said 
line; Sis represented by prefixing a dot tosaid 
line; !) is represented by two dots prefixed to 
said line; and is represented by two lines, 
each of the length of said line that represents 



1,017 



the number 5. Said signs are particularly set 
forth in the annexed drawings, marked Exam- 
ple 1, Mode 4. 

Either of said modes are to be used as may 
be preferred or desired and in the method here- 
inafter described. 

The sign of a distinct numeral or of a com- 
pound numeral when used in a sentence of 
words or of numerals consists of a distance or 
space of separation between the characters of 
greater extent than the distance used in sepa- 
rating the characters that compose any .such 
distinct or compound numeral, An il lustra- 
lion of this sign is particularly exhibited in 
the annexed drawing, marked Example 2, 

Signs of litters consist in variations of the 
dots, marks, and dots and lines, and spaces of 
separation of the same formation as compose 
the signs of numerals, varied and combined 
differently to represent the letters of the alpha- 
bet, in the manner particularly illustrated and 
represented in the annexed drawing, marked 
Example 3. 

The sign of a distinct letter, or of distinct 
words when med in a sentence, is the same 
as that used in regard to numerals and de- 
scribed above. 

Signs of words, and even of set phrases or 
sentences, may be adopted for use and commu- 
nication in like manner under various forms, 
as convenience may suggest. 

The type for producing the, signs of numer- 
als consist, first, of fourteen pieces or plates of 
thin metal — such as type-metal, brass, iron, or 
like substances — with teeth or indentations 
upon one side or edge often of said type, cor- 
responding in number to the dots or punctures 
or marks requisite to constitute the numerals, 
respectively, heretofore described in the. system 
of signs, and having also a space. left upon the 
side or edge of each type, at one end thereof, 
without teeth or indentations, corresponding 
in length with the distance or separation de- 
sired between each sign of a numeral. Another 
of said type has two indentations, forming 
thereby three teeth only, and without any 
spaee at cither end, to correspond with the size 
of a cipher, as heretofore described by refer- 
ence to Example 1, Modes 1, 2, 3, of drawings 
in said system of signs. One other of said type 
is without any indentation on its side or edge, 
and being in -length to correspond with the dis- 
tance or separation desired between distinct 
or compound numerals, and with the sign here- 
tofore described for that purpose. One of the 
remaining two of said type is formed with one 
corner of it, beveled, (system of type, Example 
4, Fig. 1 ,)aud is called a " rest;" and the. other is I 
in a pointed form and called a "atop," 

Each of said type is particularly delineated 
on the annexed drawing, marked Example 4, 
Fig. 1, and numbered or labeled in accordance 
with the purpose for which they are designed 
respectively, j) ml are used in like manner for 
producing each ot the several signs of numer- 
als heretofore described in the system of signs. 

The type for producing the signs of numer- 



als consist, secondly, of live pieces or plates of 
metal, first described above, (our of which are 
the same as are numbered 1,2,3, and 4 in the 
annexed drawing, marked Example 4, Fig. 1, 
and the tilth one being the same as is denomi- 
nated in the same exump'o "the long space," 
and heretofore alluded to; also, of six other 
pieces oi* plates ol said metal, varied in indenta- 
tions and teeth and .spaces, as represented on 
the annexed drawing, nun ked Example 4, Fig. 
2, to produce signs ot the denominations de- 
scribed in the fourth mode of the before-nicu- 
tioned system of signs, Example I. 

The type for producing the signs of letters 
ate of the same denomination with thosi> used 
in producing signs of numerals, and only varied 
in form from one to twenty-three, as exhibited 
in the annexed drawing, marked Example 5. 

The type for producing both signs of numer- 
als and signs of letters ate adapted for use to 
cither a straight rule, called the "straight port- 
rule," and arc in thatcase made straight length- 
wise, asdeseri bed in tbedrawings annexed, and 
heretofore referred to in Example 5, orto a cir- 
cular port-rule, in which case they are length- 
wise circular or formed into sections of a cir- 
cle, as represented in the drawings annexed, 
marked Example G, Figs, 2 and 3, and as will 
be further understood by the descriptions here- 
inafter contained of the straight and circular 
port-rules. On the under side of the, type for 
i he circular port-i ule (which type areof greater 
thickness than those lor the straight port -rule) 
is a groove {system of type, Example II, A in 
Figs. 1 and 3) about midway of the ir width, and 
in depth about half the thickness a foresaid, and 
extending from the space ends, as IS, Example 
fi, Fig. 3 — that is, the ends without indenta- 
tions — of said type, along the length, and con- 
forming to the curve thereof, to a point, D 1>, 
npial in distance from the opposite ends to half 
the width of the pointed teeth cut. upon their 
edges. Eur a delineation of these type refer- 
ence is made to sections thereof in Figs. 1 and 
3 upon the annexed drawings, marked Exam- 
ple G, 

The type-cases are wood or of any other ma- 
terial, with small compartments of the exact 
length of the type, tor greater convenience in 
distributing, ami resembling those in common 
use among printers. 

The type-rules aieof wood or metal or other 
material that may be preferred, and about three 
feet in length, with a groove, into which the 
type, when used, are placed- On the underside 
Of each type rule are cogs, by which they are- 
adapted to a piuiOli-wheel having correspond- 
ing cogs and forming part of a port-rule. The 
type-rule in use is moved onward as motion is 
given to the said wheel, A delineation of the 
type-ride is contained in the annexed drawing, 
marked Example 7. 

The straight port-rule consists of a pinion- 
wheel, (before mentioned,) turned by a hand- 
crank attached to a horizontal screw that plays 
into the cogs of the pinion-wheel, as the latter 
do into the cogs of the typo-rule, or by any 



1,01* 



oilier power, in any of the well-known meth- 
ods of mechanism. It is connected with a rail- 
way or groove, in anil by which the type-rule, 
from the motion imparted to it by said wheel, 
is conveyed in a direct line beneath a lever that 
breaks and connects the galvanic circuit in the 
manner herein idler mentioned. A delineation 
of said wheel, crank, and screw is contained in 
the drawings hereunto annexed, niaYked Ex- 
ample 8, Figs. 1, 2, 3. 

The circular port-rule is a substitute, when 
preferred, for both the typo - rale and the 
straight port-rule, antl consists of a horizontal 
or inclined wheel. Example 9, Fig. 1, A, of any 
convenient diameter, of wood or metal, having 
its axis connected on the under side of the 
wheel wilb a pin ion- wheel, K, and as in the 
case of the straight pott-rule. It is moved by 
the motion of tlio pinion-wheel, as is the type- 
rnle in the former description. On the entire 
circumference of said horizontal or inclined 
wheel, and upon ils upper surface, is a shoul- 
der or cavity, a, Figs, 1, 2, corresponding in 
depth with the thickness of the typo used, and 
in width, ft, equal to that of the type, exclusive 
of their teeth or indentations. Mear the outer 
edge of the surface of sail shoulder or cavity 
are ooga e, throughout the circumference of the 
wheel, projecting upward at a distance from 
each ot her equal to one-half of the wi . th of the 
teeth or indentations of the type, and other- 
wise corresponding in size to the width and 
depth of the groove D D, Fig. 4, in the under 
side of the circular type before described and 
illustrated by reference to Example G, Figs. ] 
and 3, Directly over said shoulder or cavity 
and cogs, and atone or more points on the cir- 
cumference of said wheel, is extended, from a 
fixture outside of the orbit of the wheel, a sta- 
tionary type -feeder, E, Fig. 1, formed of one 
end, e, and one side, F, perpendicular, of tin or 
brass plate or other substance, and of interior 
size and shape to receive any number of the 
type which are therein deposited, with their in- 
dentations projecting outward, as in Fig. 2, and 
I heir grooves downward, as iu Fig. 4. Said 
type-feeder is so suspended fiom its fixture F 
F over the shoulder or cavity of the wheel A, 
before described, as to admit of the passage 
under it of said wheel in its circuit as near the 
bottom of the feeder as practicable without 
coming in contact therewith. The type depos- 
ited in the feeder, as before mentioued, form a 
perpendicular column, as in Fig. 2, the lower 
type of which rests upon the surface oft he be- 
fore- named shoulder of the wheel b, Fig. 2, and 
the cog of the w heel, projecting upward, enters 
the groove 1) l>, lug. 4, of the type hereinbe- 
fore described. 

The operation of said circular port-rule in 
regulating the movement of the type in use is 
as follows : When the wheel A is set in motion 
the type resting immediately upon the shoul- 
der of the wheel iu the manner mentioned 
above, as in Fig. 2, is carried forward on the 
curvature of the wheel from beneath the col- 
umn of type resting upon it in the stationary 



type -feeder by means of one of the before- 
named cogs coming in contact with that point 
I), Fig. 3, Example (i, in the groove ol the type 
hereinbefore desciibed as forming the termina- 
tion of said groove, and which is particularly 
delineated at the points It D in the annexed 
drawing, marked Example (>, Fig, X As by 
said process the lower type in the column that 
is held by the stationary leedei' is carried for- 
ward ami removed, i he next type set lies imme- 

I diately upon the shoulder of the wheel, and, af- 
ter the manner of the removed type, is brought 

J in contact with another cog of said shoulder 
within the groove of the type, and thence ear- 
ned forward fiom beneath ihe incanilieiit col- 
umn, as was its predecessor. Then follows con- 
secutively in the same method each type de- 
posited within the feeder so long as the wiieel 
is kept in motion. The deposit of the t,\ jic in 
the stationary feeder is regulated hy the order 
iu which the loiters or numerals, or words they 
represent, are designed to be communicated at 
any distant point, or point*. After the type 
are respectively carried forward on the curva- 
ture of the wheel in the manner stated above 
beyond the point where they are acn-d upon 
hy the signal lever, as is hereinafter described, 
they are lifted, each iu its turn, from the shoul- 
der of the wiieel A and cast off into a box or 
pocket, G, below the wheel by m> ana of a slen- 
der shaft or spindle, H, made of any metal, and 
resembling in form a common plowshare, ex- 
tending downward from a fixture,?, placed out- 
side of the wheel, into a groove, K, wiihiu the 
before-named shoulder of said wheel A, and on 
the inner side of the cogs c, already described. 
By means of said groove the downward point 
of said shaft or spindle II is brought within 
the curvature and below the surface of said 
shoulder ft, Fig. 2, and consequently under the 
approaching end of the type, so that each type 
successively, as it is carried forward on said 
curvature in the manner before described is 
lifted from the shoulder and forced upward on 
the inclined shaft, or Spindle by the type in con- 
tact with it at the other end, until turned off 
into the before-named box or pocket <J below, 
ready for a redistiibuiiou. 

For a more particular delineation of the sev- 
eral parts of saiil circular port rule reference is 
made to the annexed drawings, marked Kxn.ni- 
plc !), Figs. 1 and 2. 

The signal-lever, Example t>, Flg»3, consists, 
first, for use with the straight port-tide, (Ex- 
ample S, Fig. 1, A,) of a strip of wood of any 
length from six to twenty-four inches, resting 
upon a pivot, «, or in a notched pillar foinied 
into a fulcrum by a metal pin, rt, passing 
through it and the lever. At one end of the 
lever a metallic wire, bent, to a. semicircular or 
half-square form, as at A, or resembling the 
prongs of a. fork distended, is attached by its 
center, as described in the annexed drawings, 
Example 8, at the point marked A. Between 
said end of the lever and the fulcrum «, and 
near the latter, ou the under side of the lever 
A, is inserted a metallic tooth or cog, ft, curved 



t.till 



on the side nearest to the fulcrum, and in other 
respects corresponding to tlte teeth or inden- 
tations upon tin* type already described. On 
the opposite extremity of the lever is a small 
weight, O, to balance or offset in paitwhen 
needed, t In* wcijjln of i In- lever on (lie opposite 
side of the fulcrum. The lever tuns formed is 
stationed directly over the railway or groove 
D 1>, heretofore, described B8 forming ;i <m>u- 
nected part of the straight port-mle. The move- 
ment of the type-rule brings the tooth of each 
type therein set in com act with the tooth or 
cog of the lever, and thereby lorces the lever 
upward until the poip 8 of the two teeth it) eon- 
tact have passed each oilier, when the lever 
again descends as the teeth of the type pro- 
ceed onward from t he tooth of the lever. This 
operation is repeated as frequently as the teeth 
of the type arc brought in contact with the 
tooth of the lever, By thus forcing the said 
lever upward and downward the ends of the 
semicircular or pronged wire are made alter- 
nately to rise from and fall into two small cops 
or vessels of mercury, E E, in each of which 
is an end or termination of the metallic circuit- 
coudnctors first described above. This ter- 
mination of the metallic circuit in the two cups 
or vessels breaks and limits the current of elec- 
tricity or galvanism through the circuit ; but 
a connection of the circuit Is effected or re- 
stored by the falling of the two ends of the 
pronged wire A, attached to said lever, into the 
two cups, connecting the one cup with the other 
in that way. By the rising of the lever, and 
consequently the wire upon its end, from its 
connection with said cups said circuit is in 
like manner again broken and the current of 
electricity or galvanism destroyed. To effect 
tit pleasure these two purposes of breaking and 
connecting said circuit is the design of said mo- 
tion that is imparted in the before-mentioned 
manner to said lever, and to regulate tins mo- 
tion and reduce it to the system of intelligible 
signs before, described is the design and use 
nf the variations in the form of the type, also 
before described, A plate of copper, silver, or 
other conductor connected with the broken 
parts of said circuit of conductors, and receiv- 
ing the contact of the wire attached to said le- 
ver, may be substituted, if preferred, tor said 
cups of mercury. For a particular delineation 
of the several parts of said lever reference is 
made to the annexed drawing, marked Exam- 
ple 8. 

The signal-lever consists, secondly, for use 
with the circular port-rule, (Example 9, Fig. 3,J 
of a strip ol wood, U, with a metallic wire, A, 
at one end, of the form and for the purposes of 
the lever already described above. It turns 
on a pivot or fulcrum, n, placed either near the 
middle or in the end of the lever. At the end 
of the lever, at 0, opposite to the metallic wire 
A, an elbow, e } is formed on a right angle with 
the main lever, and extending downward from 
the level with the pivot or fulcrum suniciently 
for a metallic tooth, II, in the end thereof, cor- 
responding with the teeth or indentations of j 



the type already described, to press against 
the t;*pc projecting from the shoulder or cav- 
ily of the wheel A, Fig. 1, that forms the cir- 
cular port-rule before described. Said wheel 
is placed beneath the said lever, as seen atG, 
Fig, 1, ia a position to be reached by the ex- 
tremity or tooth II of the arm of the lever just 
mentioned. The tooth II in the arm of the le- 
ver is kept in constant contact with the type 
of the circular port-rule by the pressure ol a 
spring, IS, upon it, as described in the annexed 
drawing, marked Example 9, at B. Figs, 1 and 
.'> in the same example exhibit sections of the 
said lever. The action thus produced by the 
contact of the teeth of the type in the port- 
rule when said wheel is in motion with the 
tooth in the arm of the lever lifts up and drops 
down the opposite extremity A of said lever 
having the metallic wire upon it as the tooth 
ol said lever passes into or out of the indenta- 
tions of the type, and in the same manner and 
to the same effect as the lirst- described lever 
rises and falls, and accordingly breaks and 
closes the circuit of conductors, as in the for- 
mer instance. In the use of this circular port- 
rule and its appropriate lever ( Fig. :'>) type may 
be used having the points of their teeth and 
their indentations shaped as counterparts or 
reverses to those delineated in the annexed 
drawings, heretofore referred to and marked 
Examples 1, 5, and <!, and thereby the forms of 
the recorded signs will be changed in a, corre- 
sponding manner. 

The register consists — 

First,of a lever of the shape of the lever con- 
nected with the circular port -rule above de- 
scribed, and is delineated in the annexed draw- 
ings, marked Example 10, Figs. 1, 2, and 4, at 
A. Snid lever A operates upon a fulcrum, a, 
that passes through the end that forms the el- 
bow -', upon the lower extremity of which, and 
facing an electro-magnet, is attached the arma- 
ture of a magnet,/. In the other extreme of 
the lever, at 5, is inserted one or more pencils, 
fountain-pens, piiutiug-wheels, or other mark- 
ing-instruments, as may be seen in the Fig. 4 
of example last mentioned at letter 1). The 
magnet is at letter C in the same figure. 

Secondly, of a cylinder or barrel of metal or 
wood and covered with cloth or yielding coat- 
ing, to turn upon an axis, and occupying a 
position directly beneath the pencil, fountain- 
pen, printing-wheel, or other marking-instru- 
ment, to be used as exhibited in the last- men- 
tioned example of drawing, Fig. 4, D. Two 
rollers, marked b b in said figure of drawings, 
are connected with said cylinder, on the upper- 
side curvatures thereof, and being connected 
with each other by two narrow bands of tape 
passing over and beneath each, near the ends 
thereof, and over the intervening surface of 
the cylinder, in a manner to cause a friction 
of the bands of tape upon the latter when in 
motion, as delineated in the last-named exam- 
ple, Fig. 4, at points marked c (■ Q. The dis- 
tance between said bands of tape on the roll- 
ers is such as to admit of the pencil or other 



1,617 



marking-instrument in the lever to drop upon 
the intervening spate of the cylinder. Near 
by said cylinder is a spool to turn on an axis, 
and marked (/ in the said figure, to receive 
any desired length of paper or other substance 
formed into slips or a continuous ribbon, and 
for the purpose of receiving a record of the 
signs of intelligence communicated. When 
tbe register is in motion, one end of the pi»per 
on said spool being inserted between the un- 
der surfaces of said two rollers, under the 
strips of tape that connect tlictn and the cyl- 
inder, it is drawn by the friction or pressure 
thus caused upon it forward from said spool 
gradually and passed over said cylinder, and 
is thence deposited in a box on the opposite 
side or is cut off at any desired length as it 
passes from the cylinder and rollers. 

Thirdly, of an alarm-bell, A, Exam pie 10, Fig. 
5, which is struck by means of a lever-ham uier, 
B, that is acted upon by a movable cog, It, 
placed upon an axis or pin, h, that con lines ii 
in the lower extremity of a penduTnm-le'ver, 
(marked E in Fig. 6 of Example 10) having 
an armature of a magnet attached to it at <? 
and acted upon by an electro -magnet, <>, 
placed near it and the before-named magnet, 
and in the same eifenitof conductors with the 
latter. Said cog b moves in a quarter-circle 
only, as the motion of said arm of the lever 
passes backward and forward in the act of 
recording, as hereinafter described* When 
forced into a horizontal position in said quar- 
ter-circle itceases to aetupon the hammer ; but 
when moved from a perpendicular position it 
presses upon the projection in the end of Ihe 
hammer, causing the opposite end of the ham- 
mer to be raised, from which elevation it again 
falls upon a stationary bell. A, as soon as said 
cog reaches a horizontal position, and ceases, 
as before mentioned, to press upon the hammer, 
Thus a notice by sound or an alarm is given 
at tbe point to which intelligence is to be com- 
municated as soon as the register begins lo 
act, ami such sound may be continued or not, 
at pleasure, for the purpose mentioned, or for 
any other uses, as the hammer shall be sus- 
pended or not from contact with the bell or 
with any utimberof hells that maybe employed. 
Fig. 5 of said example, marked 10 in the an- 
nexed drawings, represents sections of said 
hammer and bell. 

Said several parts of the register are set in 
motion by the communication to or action up- 
on the before -named armature of a magnet 
attached to [he lever of the register, ol the 1 
electric or galvanic cunent in the circuit of 
conductors, and front an electro -magnet in 
said circuit, as before described, stationed 
near the said armature. As said armature is 
drawn or attracted from its stationary and 
horizontal position toward the said magnet, 
when the latter is charged from the circuit of I 
conductors, said lever is turned upon its fid- i 
crum,and the opposite end thereof necessarily 
descends and brings the pen or maiking-iu- I 



stiument which it contains in contact with 
the paper or other substance on the revolving 
cylinder directly beneath it. As said arma- 
ture ceases to be thus drawn or attracted by 
said magnet, as is the case as soon as said 
magnet ceases to be charged from the circuit 
of conductors, or as the current in said circuit 
is broken in the manner herein before de- 
scribed, the said armature is forced back by 
its own specific gravity or by a spring or 
weight, as may be needed, to its former posi- 
tion, and the pen or marking-instrument in 
the opposite end of the lever is again raised 
from its contact with the paper or other sub- 
stance on the be fore -named revolving cylin- 
der. This same action is communicated simul- 
taneously from the same circuit of conductors 
to as many registers as there are correspond- 
ing magnets provided within any circuit and at 
any desired distances from each other. 

The cylinder and its two associate rollers 
are. set iu motion simultaneously with the first 
motion of the lever by the withdrawal of a 
small wire or spindle, </, Example lb, Figs. 2 
and 5, from beneath one blanch of a Hy-whee), 
I; that forms a part of the clock machinery 
hereinafter named. Said wire/; is withdrawn 
by the aetion upon said wire of a small elec- 
tro-magnet, f», Figs, '1 and 5, stationed in the 
circuit and near the large maguet before named, 
as delineated in Fig. 5 of Example 10. Said 
cylinder and rollers are subsequently kept in 
motion by a train of wheels similarto common 
clock-wheels, as in Figs, 2 and 3, acted upon 
by a weight, raised as occasion may reqftrire by 
a h ami-crank, and their motion is regulated 
by the same wheels to correspond with the 
action of the register ing-peu or marking-in- 
strument. Said train is represented in Figs. 
1, 2, and 3 of said Example IP. 

The electromagnet thus used is made iu any 
of the usual modes, such as winding insulated 
copper wire, or strips of copper, or tin-foil, or 
other metal around a bar of soft iron, either 
straight or bent into a circular form, and hav- 
ing the two extremities of the coils connected 
with the circuit of conductor.-', so that the coils 
around the magnet make part of the circuit. 

To extend more effectually the length of any 
desired circuit of conductors, and to perpetuate 
the power of the eject ' i<* <"• galvanic current 
equally throughout the same, 1 adopt the fol- 
lowing mode, and also for eon tiect in g anil using 
any desired number of additional and inter- 
vening batteries or generators of said current, 
and for connecting progressively any number 
of consecutive circuits, viz; Place at any point 
in a circuit an electro-magnet of the denomi- 
nation already described, with an armature 
upon a Sever of the form and structure, and iu 
the position of that used at the register to hold 
and operate the imnking-iiistiumrnt, with only 
a substitution therein for such marking-instru- 
ment of a forked wire, A, Example !>, Fig. 3, 
like that upon the end of the signal-lever here- 
tofore described. Directly beneath the latter 



1,017 



wire place two cups of mercury, E E, or two 
metallic plates joined to terminations of a cir- 
cuit leading from the fresh or additional battery 
or generator of said circuit, in tliesame manner 
as they are to be provided in the first circuit of 
conductors at the points where the cops of mer- 
cury are hereinbefore described. As the cur- 
rent in the first circuit acts upon the magnet 
thus provided the armature thereof and lever 
are thereby moved to dip the forked wire A 
into the cups of the second circuit, as in the 
circuit first described. This operation instantly 
connects the break in said second circuit, and 
thus produces an additional and original power 
or current of electricity or galvanism from the 
battery of said second circuit to the magnet 
or magnets placed at any one or more points 
in such circuit, to be broken at pleasure, as iu 
the first circuit ; and from thence, by the same 
operation, the same results may again be re- 
peated, extending and breaking at pleasure 
such cm rent through yet another and another 
circuit, ad iiijiiritnm, and with as many inter- 
vening registers for simultaneous action as 
m ay be desi red , an d a t a ny d i st a nces from each 
other. 

The dictionary or vocabulary consists of 
words alphabetically arranged and regularly 
numbered, beginning with the letters of the 
alphabet, so that each word in the language 
has its telegraphic number, and is designated 
at pleasure through the signs of numerals. 

The modes which 1 propose of insulating the 
wires or other metal for conductors ami of 
laying the circuits are various. The wires 
may be insulated by winding each wire with 
silk, cotton, flax, or hemp, and then dipping 
them into a solution of caoutchouc, or into a 
solution of shellac, or into pitch or resin and 
caoutchouc. They may be laid through the 
air, inclosed above the ground, in the ground, 
or in the water. When through the air they 
may be insulated by a covering that shall pro- 
tect them from the weather— such as cotton, 
flax, or hemp — and dipped into any solution 
which is a nonconductor, and elevated upon 
pillars. When inclosed abovetheground they 
may be laid in tubes of iron or lead, and these, 
again, may be inclosed in wood, if desirable. 
When laid iu the ground they may be inclosed 
in iron, leaden, wooden, or earthen tubes, aud 
buried beneath the surface. Across rivers the 
circuit may be carried beneath the bridges, or, 
where there are no bridges, inclosed in lead or 
iron and sunk at the bottom, or stretched 
across, where the banks are high, upon pillars 
elevated on each side of the river. 

What 1 claim as my invention, and desire 
to secure by Letters Patent, is as follows: 

1. The formation and arrangement of the 
several parts of mechanism constituting the 
type-rule, the straight port-rule, the circular 
port-rule, the two signal-levers, and the regis- 
ter-lever and alarm-lever, with its hammer, 
as combining respectively with each of said 



levers one or more armatures of an electro- 
magnet, and as said parts are severally de- 
scribed in the foregoing specification. 

2. The combination of the mechanism con- 
stituting the recording-cylinder and the ac- 
companying rollers and train-wheels with the 
formation and arrangement of the several parts 
of mechanism, the formation and arrangement, 
of which areelaimed as above and as described 
in the foregoing specification. 

3. The use, system, formation, and arrange- 
ment of type and of signs for transmitting in- 
telligence between distant points by the ap- 
plication of electro-magnetism aud metallic 
conductors combined with mechanism de- 
scribed in tho foregoing specification. 

4. The mode and process of breaking and 
connecting by mechanism currents of elec- 
tricity or galvanism in any circuit of metallic 
conductors, as described in the foregoing speci- 
fication. 

5. The mode and process of propelling and 
connecting currents of electricity or galvan- 
ism iu and through any desired number of cir- 
cuits of metallic conductors from any known 
generator of electricity or galvanism, as de- 
scribed in the foregoing specification. 

6. The application of electro-magnets by 
means of one or more circuits of metallic con- 
ductors from any known generator of elec- 
tricity or galvanism tothe several levers iu the 
machinery described in the foregoing specifi- 
cation, for the purpose of imparting .motion to 
said levers and operating said machinery, and 
for transmitting by signs and sounds intelli- 
gence between distant points and simultane- 
ously to different points. 

7. The mode and process of recording or 
marking permanently signs of intelligence 
transmitted between distant points and si- 
multaneously to different points by the appli- 
cation and use of electro-magnetism or gal- 
vanism, as described in the foregoing specifi- 
cition. 

8. The combination and arrangement of 
electro-magnets in one or more circuits of me- 
tallic conductors with armatures of magnets 
for transmitting intelligence by signs aud 
sounds, or either, between distant points and 
to different points simultaneously, 

!), The combination and mutual adaptation 
of the several parts of the mechanism and sys- 
tem of type and of signs with and to the dic- 
tionary or vocabulary of words, as described 
iu the foregoing specification. 

In testimony whereof 1, tho said Samuel F. 
B. Mouse, hereto subscribe my name, in the 
presence of the witnesses whose names are 
hereto subscribed, on the 7th day of April, A. 
1>. 1S38. 

SAML. F. E, MORSE. 

Witnesses: 

B. B. Fkenoii, 
Oiiaki.es Mon-iioj:, 



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NO MODEL 



S. F. B. MORSE. REISSUED JAN " 15 ' 1846 ' 
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REISSUED JAN. 15, 1846. 



S, F. B, MORSE. 

MODE OF COMMUNICATING INFORMATION BY SIGNALS BY THE 
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SO MODEL 



S, F. B. MORSE. REISSTIED J1N " 15 ' 1846 ' 
MODE OF COMMUNICATING INFORMATION BY SIGNALS BY THE 
APPLICATION OF ELEOTROMAGNETISM. 

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No, 79. 



REISSUED JAN. 15, 1846. 



S. F. B. MORSE. 

MODE OF COMMUNICATING INFORMATION BY SIGNALS BY THE 
APPLICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETISM. 

NO MODEL. 4 SHEETS-SHEET 4. 











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United States Patent Office. 



SAML. F. B. MORSE, OF NEW YORK, ST. Y. 



IMPROVEMENT IN THE MODE OF COMMUNICATING INFORMATION BY SIGNALS BY THE APPLICATION OF 

ELECTRO-MAGNETISM, 



Specificatiou forming part of Letters Patent No, 1,647, dated Jane 20, 1840 ; Reissue No, 79, dated 

Jan nary 15, 1846. 



2b all whom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Samuel F. B. Morse, 
of tbe city, county, and State of New York, 
have Id ven ted a new and useful apparatus for 
and system of transmitting intelligence be- 
tween distant points by means of electro-mag- 
nets, which put in motion machinery for pro- 
ducing sounds or signs and recording said 
signs upon paper or other suitable material, 
which, invention 1 denominate the " American 
Electro-Magnetic Telegraph ;" and I do hereby 
declare that the following is a fall, clear, and 
exact description of the principle or character 
thereof which distinguishes it from all other 
telegraphs previously kuown, and of the man- 
ner of making and constructing said apparatus 
and applying said system, reference being had 
to tbe accompanying drawings, making part 
of tbis specificatiou, in which — 

Example 1 is a sample of signs intended for 
numerals: Example 2, signs for compound nu- 
merals. Example 3 are signs for letters, and 
Examples 4, 5, and G are specimens of the form 
of types used. Example 7 is tbe type-rule; 
Example S,apparatas for connecting and break- 
ing the electrical or galvanic circuit. Example 
9 is a modified apparatus for the same pur- 
pose. Example 10, Figure 1, is a perspective 
view of tbe registering apparatus; Fig. 2, a 
top plan; Fig. 3, a side elevation of the train 
of wheels for moving the paper and regulating 
its motion ; Fig. 4, a sectional elevation of the 
registering-lever and parts appended thereto ; 
Fig. 5, alarm apparatus; Example 11, a dia- 
gram showing the relative positions of the dif- 
ferent parts of an approved form of apparatus. 
It has heretofore been essayed to use the cur- 
-imjts of electricity or gal van ism for telegraphic 
purposes either by decomposition or the action 
or exercise of tbe deflective force of a current 
upon a magnetized bar or needle, which de- 
composition or deflection required to be noted 
by oecnlar inspection at tbe instant the sign 
was made. 

By my invention the intelligence can be trans- 
mitted and imprinted on paper or other suit- 
ablesubstance without requiring the aid of any 
person at the station to which the communica- 
tion is transmitted, so as to be read at any 
time thereafter, 



The apparatus consists of fcwo principal parts 
connected by wires, as shown in the Diagram 
No. 11, or other suitable galvanic or electric 
conductors to form a circuit, in which is placed' 
any suitable generator of galvanism or elec- 
tricity as tbe inducing power. 

The first part of my telegraph is for commu- 
nicating intelligence to the second, where it is re- 
corded ; and i t consists of apparatus for making 
and breaking the circuit above named. At any 
convenient point iu the circuit (generally near 
the gen erator) a break is in adc i u tb e eoud uctor, 
and the two euds thereof are immersed hi mer- 
cury-cups, as shown in the drawings at E E, 
Fig. 1, Example S. To correct the circuit I 
employ an inverted V- formed piece of metal 
or other proper conductor, A, suspended over 
the mercury-cups E E on the end of a horizon- 
tal lever, denominated in said drawing the 
"sigual-lever," whose fulcrum is at a, so that 
when the connector A is dipped into the. cups 
the circuit is completed. Between the fulcrum 
and connector A there is affixed to the under 
side of the lever, and projecting downward, a 
triangular tooth, b, which bears on the upper 
surface of the types about to be described, aud 
is raised and lowered by them. The lever may 
be counterbalanced, as at 0, to make it move 
easy. The types are composed of flat straight 
strips of metal, as shown in Examples 4 and 
5 of the drawings, hereunto annexed, having 
their upper edges indented to suit the char- 
acter to be represen ted, and which will be here- 
inafter more fully set forth in the description 
of tbe operation of tbe machine. The inden- 
tations are sufficiently deep to allow the con- 
nector A to be plunged into the mercury-cups, 
and the highest surface raises it from them. It 
is obvious that the forms of the upper surface 
of the types may be reversed and the cog b 
placed on tbe other side of the fulcrum, and 
the same eft'ect be produced. The types are 
set up and confined in, a rule to form any re- 
quired sentences in one long line. This rule, 
which iu the drawings, Example 8, is"deuomi- 
nated a "type-rule," has on its under side a 
rack that gears into a pinion, x, on a shaft un- 
der the grooved railways D, of common con- 
struction, on which said rule slides, aud is di- 
rected under tbe cog b on the lever. The types 



79 



are advanced at a regular speed by the appli- 
cation of any convenient power to the pinion 
at and bring notches in them successively under 
the cog. 

Other modification? of this apparatus can 
be made, some of wbicb-aro shown in the draw- 
ings, Example 9, in which is represented what 
I denominate a "circular post- rule," in which 
the type are made to surround a disk, A, ra- 
dially, the other, parts of the apparatus being 
madetocorrespond. lu this modification there 
may be a stationary hopper or type-feeder, E, 
into which the types are placed flatwise, one 
above another, as shown at Fig. 2, placet! over 
the space that is to receive the types on the 
disk A, and as the disk revolves the types 
placed in the feeder fall successively into place 
on the disk and are carried past the signal- 
lever, where they act, and are then carried off 
from the disk by a gaide, H, into a receiver, 
G-. Many other devices have been suggested 
for effecting the same object — via.,making and 
breaking the circuit; but 1 believe these ex- 
amples will illustrate the principle- The mer- 
cury-cups maybe dispensed with and suitable 
metal plates substituted therefor. 

The second part of my apparatus is for reg- 
istering the signals or sentences communicated. 
from the station where the apparatus hereto- 
fore described is situated; audit consists of an 
electro-magnet, which is in and connected with 
the above-described circuit, aud clock-work for 
moving the paper or other registering medium, 
and an alarm may also be appended. The 
electro-magnet may be of any convenient con- 
struction, and will be charged every time the 
circuit is closed, as above, and discharged when 
it is broken. Opposite the bars of the electro- 
magnet (Example 10) C is placed an armature, 
/, suspended on the upright arm of a bent le- 
ver, A, the fulcrum of which is at a. This is 
most clearly represented in section, Fig. 4. 
To the end of the horizontal arm of this lever 
there is attached one or more pencils, fountain- 
pens, or other' suitable marking-instruments, 
directly under which is placed a suitable cyl- 
inder,!), over which the paperpasses on which 
the register is made. This cylinder turns on 
its axis, and is connected by a train of wheels 
and pinions with a barrel, m, of common con- 
struction, which is driven by a weight and cord 
. wound thereon, and also with a fly, ft, which 
regulates its motion, Near the cylinder D a 
reel or spool, d, is placed, on which a strip of 
paper is wound, the end of which is carried 
over the cylinder D, acd is confined thereon 
by means of two tapes or endless bands, one 
at each edge, which pass around two pulleys, 
b b, one on each Sjide of cylinder D. This is 
clearly represented in Figs. 2 and 4 By this 
arrangement it will be seen that when the 
electro-magnet is charged the marking-instru- 
ment will be brought down onto the paper, 
which is at the same- time put in motion by 
removing a wire,ff, which is so connected with 
the armature that it can be drawn back from 



the fly ft, and allow it to turn, (see Figs, 4 aud 
5,) and makes a mark, longer or shorter, ac- 
cording to the time the circuit is closed. 

My system of characters consists of dots and 
lines, variously combined to form letters and 
othei' characters, a specimen of which is rep- 
resented in Examples 1, 2, aud 3. To make a 
dot a notch is required in the types, into which 
the cog on the signal -lever will fall and in- 
stantly riso from as the type moves on ; aud 
when a line is to be formed the notch in the 
type is extended, so that the lever will remain 
down for a space of time sufficient to make the 
line required. 

The alarm -bell (shown at A, Example 10, 
Fig. 5) is struck by means of a hammer actu- 
ated by asupplemeutary electro- magnet placed 
in the same circuit as that first named. The 
machinery for thus purpose may be variously 
modified, and therefore no particular descrip- 
tion need be given. 

Any convenient number of registering-sta- 
tions may he connected with the same circuit, 
all constructed and operating as above de 
scribed. 

To extend more effectually the communica- 
tion by my apparatus, I adopt the following 
arrangement, whereby I can use any number 
of additional batteries or generators of said 
current, and by which I can connect progres- 
sively any number of consecutive circuits, viz; 
I place at any point in the first circuit an elec- 
tro-magnet, with an armature opposite, on a 
lever like that described for registering ; but 
instead of the marking-iustrument I attach to 
the end of the lever a conductor, puch as is 
described on the first or sigual lever. This 
connects the conductors of a new circnit, at- 
tached to auother battery, aud this might be 
continued on ad infinitum. 

The conductors may be insulated in any con- 
venient way, and may be extended above or 
below the surface of the earth, as shall be 
found most desirable, and sustained oiinclosed 
by any suitable construction. 

It will be observed that any vocabulary, sys- 
tem of signs, or secret writing by cipher can 
be conveniently used in communicating by this 
telegraph, and any mode of making or break- 
ing the circuit can be adopted, the object be- 
ing to do so at proper intervals. 

Having thus fully described my invention, 
I wish it to be understood that 1 do not claim 
the use of the galvanic curreut or currents of 
electricity for the purpose of telegraphic com- 
munication; but 

What I specially claim as my invention and 
improvement is — 

1. Making use of the motive power of mag- 
netism when developed by the action of such 
current or currents, as a meaus of operating or 
giving motion to machinery, which may be 
used to imprint signals upon paper or other 
suitable material or to produce sounds in any 
desired manner for the purpose of telegraphic 
communication, (The only ways in which the 



79 



galvanic current has heretofore been proposed 
to be used is by decomposition and the action 
or exercise of the deflective force of a current 
upon a magnetized bar or needle, and the de- 
compositions and deflections thus produced 
were the subject of inspection, and had no 
power of recording the com in nni cation. I 
therefore characterize my invention as the first 
recording or printing telegraph by means of 
electro-magnetism. There are various known 
modes of producing motions by electro-mag- 
netism, but none of these have hitherto been 
applied to actuate or give motion to printing 
or recording machinery, which is the chief 
point of my invention and improvement.) 

2. The system of signs consisting of dots 
and lines, substantially as herein set forth and 
illustrated, in combination with the telegraph 
for recording signals. 

3. The types and rnle, in combination with 
the signal-levers, as herein described, for the 



purpose of connecting and breaking the cur- 
rent of galvanism and electricity. 

4, In combination with an electro - magnet 
used for telegraphic purposes, the train of 
clock-work actuated by a weight or spring for 
the purpose of carrying the material on which 
the record is to be made under the registering- 
pen, substantially in the manner specified. 

5, The combination of two or more circuits 
of galvanism or electricity generated by in- 
dependent batteries by means of electro-mag- 
nets, as above described. , 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto sub- 
scribed my name, this 27th day of December, 
1845, to the above amended specification of 
the invention for which Letters Patent were 
granted to me on the 20th day of Jane, 1840. 
SAML. F. B. MORSE. 
Witnesses : 

James MacGregor, Jr., 
A. P. Browne. 



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United States Patent Office, 

SAMUEL F. B. M0K6E, OF STEW STORK, H". Y. 
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TELEGRAPHS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent Nn, 1,453, dated Ajuil 11, l^-lil. 



To ail ichom it may concern ; 

Be it known that I, S. F, B. Mouse, of New- 
York, in the county of New York and State of 
New York, have invented a new and useful Im- 
provement in the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph ; 
and I do hereby declare that the following is 
a fall, clear, and exact description of the con- 
struction and operation thereof, reference be- 
ing had to the accompanying drawings, iu 
which — 

Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal view 
through the machine. Fig. 2 is a top plan. 
Fig. 3 is a side elevation. 

The construction of my apparatus is as fol- 
lows: In the section Fig. 1, A represents the 
base, which is an oblong plank to which all of 
the other parts are affixed. Near one end of 
said base are t wo upright standards. (Shown in 
the figures and lettered jf.) These standards 
are represented by harp-shaped castings, which 
are placed a little distance apart and support 
the journals of a short cylinder near their top, 
around which a strip of paper, 12, is wound, 
of any length, and from it is supplied to the 
machine, as hereinafter described. 

Near the center of the base A is situated tiie 
electro-magnet of the register, winch is con- 
structed as follows : Two round bars of soft iron 
are each placed in a coil of insulated copper 
wire, 0, the lower ends of said bars B' being 
connected by a cross-bar, D, extending from 
one to the other, through which they pass, and 
to which they are secured by screws, which are 
screwed onto them. The upper ends of these 
bars above the coils curve inward toward each 
other, coming nearly together without touch- 
ing, as shown at B', Fig, 4, and the extreme 
ends are turned upward, as shown at F', same 
figure. 

Just in front of the coils C, above named, 
there is affixed to the base an upright stand- 
ard, H, through which a bolt, I, is put horizon- 
tally, with its head against a plate, J, between 
it and standard H. This holt passes through 
between the two coils 0, and also through a 
cross-bar, L, that extends from one coil to the 
other. On its end a screw is cut, on which a 
nut, K, is screwed, which secures the two coils 
and the soft-iron bars firmly in their places. 
Each of the coils of wire have wooden heads 



or cheeks above and below, with binding-wires 
extending from one to the other, for the pur- 
pose of keeping the wire together. 

On the top of the standard II there is a cross- 
bar, Q, permanently attached to said standard, 
and having in each end a thumb-screw, (lettered 
Oand P,)the ends of which extend down nearly 
to a lever, M M, directly under said bar Q, 
which I denominate the "pen-lever." One arm 
of this lever projects over the soft bars iibove 
named, where an armature, G, of soft iron is 
attached to it, that extends over the sun;! of 
the ends of both bars ft' of the electro -magnet, 
as shown iu the plan, Fig. 2. To the other end 
of the lever three, more or less, points, 5, are 
affixed, that project upward toward a steel roll- 
er, 4, directly under the center thereof, as here- 
inafter described. 

The extent of the vibration of the (ever M 
is regulated by the thumb-screws O and P, 
above named, its pivot ft being iu the standard 
II. The screw O is for limiting the upward 
motion of the pen or points 5, and 1' theirdowu- 
ward motion, a spring, x, being used to draw 
them down. 

A suitable frame is secured to the .same base 
A as the other parts above described, winch 
contains the clock-work for supplying the pa- 
per from the roll. Said clock is composed of 
a cylinder or barrel, ,c, on which a cord, 10, is 
wound, to which a weight, 11, is suspended. 
On this barrel, at one end, is a ratchet-wheel, 
x 1 , and on the same shaft as the barrel there 
is a spur-wheel, .<", with a spring-click, similar 
to a common clock. This wheel connects, by 
means of a lnultiplyiug-gearing, with the cyl- 
inder 3, upon which is pressed a cylinder, 2, 
by means of a spring, V, which passes over the 
top of the frame, its ends turning down and 
resting on the journals of cylinder 2, Figs. 2 
and 3, and holds down the upper roller. The 
pressure ofthisis regulated by screws Won top. 
These cylinders draw the strip of paper 12 be- 
tween them, after it has passed under a cylin- 
der, 4, placed over the pens above described, in 
which cylinder are grooves 4', cut directly op- 
posite the points. 

In addition to the above-described machine, 
there is what I denominate a "receiving-mag- 
net,"of thefollowingconstruction and use. Itis 



J, 453 



represented iu Figs. 2 and 3, and consists of a 
bar of soft iron,/', tlie two ends f* j" 3 of which 
are turned up at riglit angles, and said ends 
are made larger in diameter than tlie lower 
horizontal part,/, which may be flat. On the 
upper end of one of the uprights, f 1 , is bolted 
a horizontal bar, //, that extends out to a point 
just beside the other upright,/ 3 , (more clearly 
shown in the outline Fig. 2,) and its end tarns 
up at the same distance from f 1 as the end of 
/'. The upper end of the upright / ! and bar 
if are on a level with each other, and they are 
chamfered off on the sides from each other, so 
as to Lave, the lace of the upper ends smaller 
than the body of the bars and adjacent to each 
other. Around each of the uprights/ 2 /"' there 
is a large flnt coil of wire consisting of a wire 
of considerable length, say one mile, more or 
less, in each coil. These coils connect with a 
battery, e, Fig. 3, at the other station by a wire 
from one of the coils, and with the ground as 
a conductor to the other, as hereinafter de- 
scribed. The circuit can be broken or closed 
by au apparatus consisting of a straight lever 
or key, d, Figs. 2 and 3, to one end of which 
ooe wire, r/', Fig. 3, is connected, and a boss of 
metal, <\ composing the anvil, is at tacked to the 
other wire, c', forming tlie rest of the circuit. 
When the hammer on the lever rf is brought 
down on the anvil it closes the circuit, by which 
the bar/-/ ' of the receiving-magnet at the op- 
posite station is magnetized. This attracts a 
keeper or armature, d", on the short arm of a 
straight metal lever, d', suspended on metal 
standards tV above it, which causes the long 
arm of said lever to rise and come in contact 
with a brass adjusting- screw, //, placed above 
and near its end, to which is attached the 
wire leading to one pole of the local battery k. 
The wire >' i" from the other pole of said bat- 
tery is connected with the metal standards d 1 
that support the journal of lever d', and thus 
completes the circuit which has theclectro-mag- 
net B in it for writing, by which any amount 
of power can be obtained that is required to 
enable the said magnet to draw down the ar- 
mature G above described, which causes the 
points 5 to mark on tiie paper 12. (See Fig. 1.) 
To the arm M of the pens a break, S, which 
is a common plain lever, is attached by means 
of a connecting-rod, C, so as to be raised from 
a friction-pulley when the peu is made to mark 
and let off the clock-work attached thereto, 
which puts the paper iu motion. This break 
8 is attached to the shaft 7 placed a little above 
the friction-pulley 9 that is connected with the 
clock-work on which said break acts. On the 
same shaft 7 with the break there is a pulley, 
z, connected by an endless band with a smaller 
policy on the shaft of the barrel on which the 
weight-cord is wound. This causes the break, 
when raised by the lever M, slowly to descend 
till it strikes the friction-pulley It and stops 
the clock-work, after a suilicieut quantity of 
paper has been run off by its action to form 
the spaces for the longest rests between the 



motions of the pen-lever if, and thus keeping 
the break up till the. writing ceases, after which 
it gradually descends and the machine is 
stopped. 

The red and black Hues, Fig. 3, show the 
relative positions of the apparatus iu connec- 
tion with a circuit of wire. 

a is a copper plate buried in the ground, 
from which a wire, &, ascends to a battery, c. 
This I denominate the " main battery." From 
thence the wire extends to a receiving-mag- 
net,/, described in a former section, and rep- 
resented at /, Figs. 1 and 3. From thence a 
wire, (■', is continued to the opposite station, 
and is there connected with the anvil e of the 
key d, as above described, and thence to an- 
other plate of copper, jr, in the ground. Con- 
necting this circuit by means of the key d, 
magnetizes the receiving-magnet and causes 
the lever d ! to move, which closes the circuit 
of wire i connected with a local battery, /,-, 
and magnetizes the soft bars B of Fig. o, act- 
ing on the pen-lever, which causes it to mark 
on tlie paper. 

The economy of the galvanic power by the iu- 
t reduction of the receiving-magnet is obvious. 
When the extent of the telegraphic line is 
very great the resistance to the passage of the 
galvanic current is proportionably increased, 
and an enormous battery would be" required 
to operate the pen by means of the register or 
local niiignet, which is of small dimensions 
and has a comparatively short extent of wire 
around it ; but I have discovered that by nsing 
a very long coil of wire, as in the receiving- 
magnet, there is a suflieiently powerful mag- 
net produced (notwithstanding the length of 
the telegraphic lino may be very great) by 
means of a small galvanic battery. The same 
extent of galvanic battery that would produce 
no available magnetism in the register-mag- 
nets charges the receiving-magnet to such an 
extent as to enable me to produce motion, and 
thus at pleasure, to make and break the cir- 
cuit of the small local battery, which, being 
on the spot and charging the register- magnet, 
gives me perfect control over it and the appa- 
ratus connected with it. Tims I resort to two 
magnets and two batteries, of such relative 
characters as T have described, to effect a com- 
munication through any distance desired with- 
out increasing to any considerable degree tho 
size of the main galvanic battery, which is in 
itself a great source of expense. 

What I claim as my invention, and desire 
to secure by Letters Patent, is — 

1. The receiviug-magnet, or a magnet hav- 
ing a similar character, that sustains such a re- 
lation to the register- maguetj or other magnetic 
contrivances for registering, and the length of 
current or telegraphic line as will enable me 
to accomplish, with the aid of amain galvanic 
battery and the introduction of a local battery, 
such motion or power for registering as could 
not be obtained otherwise without the use of 
a much larger galvanic battery. 






4.4*3 



2. The use ol' a local battery and magnet, 
iu combination with a battery and magnet con- 
nected with the main line or lines of conduct- 
ors, for the purpose above'specified. 

3. The combination of the apparatus con- 
nected with the clock-work for setting off the 
paper and stopping it with the peu-Iever M. 



4. The combination of the points affixed in 
the pen-lever with the grooved roller N for 
marking on paper, as above described, 

SAM. F. B. MOESE. 
Witnesses : 

Alfred Vail, 
J, J. Greenough. 



No. 118. 



S, F, 8. MORSE. 
Telegraph, 



4 Sheets— Sheet 1. 



Reissued June 13, 1848. 




No, 118. 



S, F, B. MORSE, 
Telegraph, 



4 Sheets— Sheet 3, 



Reissued June 13, 1848. 




No. 118, 






S. F. B. MORSE. 
Telegraph. 



VMWfftJ 



hjk 1 



& 



s, 




** 



I I 



L 



4 Sheets— Sheet 4. 



Reissued June 13, 1848. 




United States Patent Office. 

SAML. P. B. MOUSE, OP POTJGHKEEPSIE, NEW YOKK. 
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO- MAGNETIC TELEGRAPHS. 



Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 4,453, dated April 11, l*il>; Reissue No. IIS, dated 

June 13, 1848. 



To all trhom it may concern: 

Be it known that I, Samukl F, B. Morse, 
nowof Poughkeepsie, in Dueke$seounty,iu the 
State of Now York, have invented a new and 
useful Improvement in the Eleetro-MagnetL 
Telegraphs; and 1 do hereby declares that the 
following is a full, clear, and exact description 
of theobject, construction, and operation there- 
of, reference being had to the accompanying 
drawings, and making part of the same. 

The original and fi nal object of all telegraph- 
ing is the com nui ideation of intelligence at a 
distance by signs or signals. 

Various modes of telegraphing or making 
signs or signals at a distanee have for ages 
been iu use. The signs employed heretofore 
have had one quality in common. They are 
evanescent, shown or heard a moment, and leav- 
ing no trace of their having existed. The vari- 
ous modes of these evanescent signs have been 
by beacon - fires of different characters, by 
flags, by balls, and reports of lire-arms, by 
bells heard from a distant position, by mova- 
ble arms from posts, &c. 1 do not therefore 
claim to be the inventor of telegraphs gener- 
ally. The electric telegraph is a more recent 
kind of telegraph proposed within the last cen- 
tury ; but no practical plan was devised until 
about sixteen years ago. Its distinguishing 
feature is the employment of electricity to ef- 
fect the same general result of communicating 
intelligence at a distance by signs or signals. 
The various modes of accomplishing this end 
by electricity have been the employment of 
common or machine electricity as early as 17ST 
to show an evanescent sign by the divergence 
of pith-balls; the employment of common or 
machine electricity in 1704 to show an evan- 
escent sign by the. electric spark ; the employ- 
ment of voltaic electricity in ISO!) to show an 
evanescent sign by the evolution of gas-bub- 
bles decomposed from a solution in a vessel of 
transparent glass; the employment of voltaic 
electricity in the production of temporary mag- 
netism in 1820 to show an evanescent sign by 
deflecting a magnet or compass-needle. The 
result contemplated from all these electric tel- 
egraphs was the production of evanescent 
signs or signals only. I do not therefore claim 
to have first applied electricity to telegraph- 
in g for' t h e p u rpose of sh o w i n g e va n escen t s i gt i s 
or signals. 



The original and final object of my telegraph 
is to imprint characters at any distance as sig- 
nals for intelligence. Its object is to mark or 
impress them in a permanent manner. To 
attain this end I have applied electricity in 
two distinct ways: First, I have applied by a 
novel process the motive power of electro-mag- 
netism, or magnetism produced by electricity, 
to operate machinery for printing signals at 
anydistance; second, I have applied the chem- 
ical effects of electricity to print signals at any 
distance. 

Theapparatusor machine with which I mark 
or imprint signs or letters for telegraphic pur- 
poses at a distance I thus describe, viz. : first, 
the machinery at the transmitting terminus; 
second, the machinery at the receiving or re- 
cording terminus ; third, the arrangement of 
circuits or conductors consisting of the main 
circuit and local circuit or circuits connecting 
the machinery of both termini. 

First, the machinery at the transmitting ter- 
minus consists of the key or correspondents. 
(See Sheet III, Fig, (i.) The. part N is of wood 
or some convenient non-conducting substance. 
3 is a spring or lever of metal, fastened upon 
N atone end and terminating at the other in 
a knob or hammer, r, faced with platinum, it 
is a metallic anvil, also faced with platinum. 
Farts of the electric conductor terminate at 
the key, the one part at the. anvil « and the 
other at the hammer I, in such a way that the 
only part broken of the entire circuit is be- 
tween the points a and f. The object of the 
key is to close and break the circuit. 

Second, the machinery at the receiving ter- 
minus consists of the receiving-magnet. {See 
Fig, -i,Sheet It) II II are the coils or helices 
of the magnet, being part of the main circuit 
of conductors. K K (see Figs. 4 and o, Sheets 
II and III) represent the iron of the electro- 
magnet in a form to enable me to enlarge tlie 
coils or helices without separating to an in- 
convenient distanee the poles L L from each 
other. K K represent the upper and lower 
portions of the magnet, which are without the 
coils, and one of which unites the two portions 
of -the magnet within the coils, forming one 
piece with them. The other bar is united at 
one end to this piece by a screw a( r, and runs 
divergent from tho position of the other bar 
in such a maimer as to bring the two poles 



a 



us 



I/'L near each other, bat not in contact. This 
arrangement admits of coils of any desired 
sizetoform the helices of a magnet without 
requiring any increase in the size of the ar- 
mature, thus allowing to the armature a quicker 
vibration and a more delicate adjustment. The 
special object of the receiving-magnet is to 
close and break at a distance another circuit, 
called a" local circuit,"in which local circuit is 
a magnet aud battery or their equivalents for 
the induction of the power necessary to mark 
or imprint characters. 

# is the armature of the receiving-magnet, 
affixed to the metallic lever T, supported by the 
metal standard P, which is attached to a 
wooden frame or other nonconducting sub- 
stance, M. j is" a spring so attached to the 
lever Tas to withdraw the armature s from the 
poles L L ef the .magnet when the magnetic 
force is withdrawn, the other extremity of the 
spring being so attached to a thumb- screw, q, 
as to be adjusted to any desired degree of 
strength, or delicacy, ^is a stop (being a screw 
with a head) to regulate, in connection with an- 
other metallic screw, y, the limits of motion of 
the lever T. The screw y has its end, w, faced 
with platinum iu order to form better contact 
with the platinum point or surface v on the 
lever T. On the proper adjustment of these 
two screws I and y depends the efficiency of 
the receiving-magnet. The limits of motion 
should be such that when the magnetis charged 
the point v should come in contact with the 
point w, butthe surface of the armature should 
not touch the surface of the poles of the mag- 
net, and wheu the magnet is not charged the 
armature should not be withdrawn by the 
spring j beyond the sphere of the magnet's at- 
traction. 

The register consists of a series of wheels aud 
pinions, and its object is to regulate the move- 
ment of paper orother material upon which to 
imprint telegraphic characters. 

A A, &c., Sheets II I, Figs. 1 aud 3, represent 
the platform, of wood or other convenient ma- 
terial, upon which is to be imprinted the tele- 
graphic characters ; D, one form of the arrange- 
ment of the wheels and pinions of the register ; 
d e, rollers for drawing the paper in contact 
with the pen or marking- roller 2. (Seen also on 
Sheet III, Fig. 10.) 

Sheet II, Fig. 3: E represents the helices or 
coils and magnet of the register ; F, the pen- 
lever, and armature of the magnet attached. 
5 6 are stops, being thumb-screws attached to 
some convenient fixed part of the machinery, 
for limiting the motion of lever F, to which is 
affixed both the armature of the magnet E aud 
the pen point or points g. The stop 5 arrests 
the movement of the armature as it moves 
toward and stop 6 as it recedes from (by the 
action of the spring 7) the poles of the mag- 
net, according as magnetism exisls or ceases. 
Tho spring 7 so operates on the lever F as to be 
antagonistic to the attractive power of the 
electro-magnet E — not so strong as success- 
fully to resist the magnetic power when excited, 



but strong enough when the magnetic power 
ceases to bring the armature back quickly. The 
armature iu its movements should not be al- 
lowed to touch the face of the magnet, nor 
should the point or points <j (of which there 
may be one or more at pleasure) be allowed to 
touch the bottom of the groove or grooves" of 
the roller 2. The pen point or points, if they 
are screws, aid in an exact adjustment of the 
pen -lever. 

The frame D contains the train of wheels 
whose motion is caused by the weight a or its 
equivalent. Connected With this train of wheels 
is the self-stopping apparatus G G', which con- 
sists of a friction-wheel or brake-wheel, i i, of 
any suitable material, as wood, cork, &c, which 
should be fixed upon any convenient part of 
the fly-wheel shaft, or the swiftest or one of the 
swiftest in the train. Another shaft, G, has at 
one extremity a pulley-wheel connected by a 
small cord with another pulley-wheel, G', fixed 
upon the shaft of the barrel b. The diameter 
of the pulley- wheel G is greater than that of 
G'. Attached to and forming a part of the shaft 
of G is a small arm or brake, k, of metal or 
other suitable material, so formed as to come 
in contact with the friction- wheel i i. A light 
rod of wire, m, secured atone extremity to and 
dropped from the pe,n-lever F s has the other ex- 
tremity with a screw-thread cut upon it, which 
rod passes freely through an opening in the 
brake k. A nut fitting the screw keeps the rod 
from passing back through the opening, and at 
the same time serves to adjust aud regulate the 
movement of the brake. The object of the self- 
stopping apparatus is to enable the operator to 
pat in action or to arrest at pleasure the move- 
ment of the distant register. 

The paper-rollers d, e, and 2, Fig, 10, Sheet 
III, are so connected with the train of wheels 
that the paper drawn from the reels, by pass- 
ing between d and e,is made to be in contact 
with the grooved cylinder 2. The roller e is 
kept iu contact with d by the forked spring in 
Fig. 10 bearing upon the ends of the journals, 
and regulated in its strength by the thumb- 
screws 8 and 9. The bearing or sockets for 
the ends of the shafts of e are not circular, but 
are slots to allow of a slight movement in a di- 
rection with aud against the force of the spring, 
so that the spring shall act with proper power 
tending to keep the cylinder e in contact with d. 

The circuits of conductors. — A circuit is a 
continuous connection by a good conductor be- 
tween and uniting the two poles of a battery 
or any generator of electricity. I use iu my 
arrangement for imprinting signals two com- 
binations of circuits iu connection with the re- 
ceiving-magnet or its equivalent: 

The first combination consists of two or more 
single circuits consecutively arranged, each 
h a vi n g a battery and rec e i viug-magnet ortheir 
equivalents, the second circuit being depend- 
ent on the first circuit, aiid the third on the 
second, and the fourth on the third and so on 
ad infinitum, like links of a chain. In this 
combination of circuits the entire line is de- 



IIS 



combination of circuits tUe entire line is de- 
pendent on the entirety of each single circuit 
of the Whole series. 

The second combination-consists of one main 
single circuit containing in it "any number of 
receiving- magnets or their equivalents, the 
helices of which arc successively and continu- 
ously connected. Each receiving-magnet or 
its equivalent closes and breaks an independent 
second circuit, which is no part of the main 
line, nor is the main line in tlncnced in its action 
by the derangement of any one -or all of the 
locator secondary circuits. Both combinations 
of circuits may Lie insulated upon posts, or oth- 
erwise, to any distances throughout a country 

These two combinations of circuits are illus- 
trated by Figs. 8 and 9, Sheet IV. 

'Example 1. — The first link has a battery, G. 
From the pole P the circuit connects theanvij 
JJ of a key or correspondent where it termi- 
nates. From E it again commences, and, pass- 
ing through F, continues to the plate C in the 
earth, thence through the earth to plate JJ, 
and then through the helices of the magnet A, 
terminating at the. other pole, N, of the bat- 
tery. At the key F E 1> is the only part of 
the circuit broken — to wit, between E and 1>. 
When E is pressed down so' as to touch I) the 
circuit is closed, and, the magnetic influence 
from the battery G operating on A, the lever 
F' E' !)' of the second link is brought down. 
J->' and E' are connected, (the only broken 
parts of the second circuit similarly arranged 
as the first,) and the battery G' operates the 
helices of the magnet A', connected with an- 
other lever, and so on to a third link indefi- 
nitely. 

Example 2, Fig. !>. — From one pole of the 
main battery M the conductor proceeds to the 
key P, where it is interrupted, (as in the key 
F l'J I) of the previous example,) and thence 
proceeds to the plate K in the earth, passing 
through the earth to the plate L at the other 
terminus. From L it passes to a similar key, 
11, thence through the helices of receiving- 
magnet O to an intermediate key, Q, thence 
through the helices of receiving-magnet N, and 
so coiupleteiiEg the circuit at the other pole of 
the battery M. The local circuits are without 
the main line. When not in use the keys P, 
tj, and P are kept closed, so that wherever 
there is a key upon the line an operator can 
command the whole line by breaking and clos- 
ing circuit with the key at his station. Each 
key o iterates every receiving- magnet on the 
hue, N and O both operate when either of 
the keys P, <,>, or R is made to close and break 
the circuit. When the main circuit is closed 
the magnetism at N and operates the local 
lever or key which connects the local circuit, 
having the locaj battery S and the register- 
magnet T in the local circuit, causing the lever 
operated by T to mark the characters ou the 
paper at U. 

In the Example 1 the receiving- magnet 
propagates the magnetic impulse from circuit 
to circuit on consecutive and mtttually.depeud- 



eut circuits. In Example L' it is propagated 
from a main circuit simultaneously to inde- 
pendent circuits. 

Cuii nee t ion of the other p a rtn of t A e m a chin- 
erg with the circuit*. — O, Sheet II, Fig. 3, is the 
main battery, from one pole of which the main 
conductor ■» proceeds to the plate Q' in the 
earth. From thence it passes in the direction 
of the arrow to the plate Q, thence to the key 
X, where it terminates at t. Co aim cueing 
again at w, it proceeds to the helices of the 
magnet K K and back to the other pole of the 
battery O. 

It is the locgl battery, from one pole of 
which the conductor XXX of the local cir- 
cuit proceeds to the screw i/ and to the point 
w, where it terminates. Commencing at v ou 
the lever T, it passes through the metal .stand- 
ard P to the screw z, from thence through 
the helices of the rogister-miguetl'j, and thence 
back to the other pole of the battery R. 

Having thus described the object and con- 
struction of my invention, and the connection 
of the different parts of the machinery with 
each other, 1 will now describe the operation 
of the system combined as a whole. 

The icgister D is at rest and the weight, 
prevented from acting and moving the clock- 
work by the pressure or friction of the brake 
k upon the brake-wheel j, the brake being kept 
in contact with the brake-wheel by the power 
of the weight itself. Now, when the key or 
correspondent X is pressed down, so that the 
metallic hammer t shall strike the anvil;*, this 
being the only part of the main circuit that is 
interrupted or broken, the circuit of conduct- 
ors froTi the two poles of the main battery O 
are by this act connected, and the electricity 
from the battery freely passes through the en- 
tire circuit »« n, imparting magnetic power 
to the helices II H of the receiving-magnet K 
K. The armature S ou the metallic lever Tis 1 
now attracted by the poles L L and r ir. 
The only part of the local circuit broken are 
brought together, closing the local circuit x 
x x of the local battery K, which instantly 
imparts magnetic power to the register-mag- 
net E3, to strike the point or pen tj against the, 
paper. The rising of the lever F has suddenly 
raised the brake k, by means of the rod m, 
from the brake-wheel i, so that now the weight 
a is permitted to move the whole train. The 
rollers dc commence drawing the paper in regu- 
lar time from the ] taper- reel C. If the key 
which has been pressed down is now released 
and the circuit broken, the lever F falls, the 
power being gone that held it; but. when it 
falls the lower end of the brake-rod, having 
free play through the opening in the brakt- le- 
ver, does not, in its descent, take down the 
brake, but- leaves it to the action of the clock- 
work gradually to bring it down into contact 
again with the brake-wheel. While closing 
and breaking the circuit, therefore, for im- 
printing the characters, the machine keeps in 
movement, tor every rising of the lever F, in 
the act of writing or imprinting, prevents the 



US 



brake-lever from descending and coming in 
contact with the brake- wheel, tbr the cord 
which connects Gwith G' slips uiion the small- 
est wheel G', from the quickness of the action 
of the lever; but when the circuit remains 
broken for a short time, the lever F having 
fallen, there is now no more obstacle to the 
brake lever k in slowly descending by "the ac- 
tion of the machinery till it comes in contact 
with the brake-Wheel i. and thus arrests all 
motion. 

In this manner, by the apparatus or machine 
or combination of machinery above described, 
I am enabled, standing at any one station, to 
mark or impiint signs or signals at any other 
station, however distant, and by a combina- 
tion of these machines, by means of electro- 
magnetism, all being in' order, J can at the 
same instant, by pressure upon one key, mark 
or imprint the same signs or signals at any 
number of points throughout the American 
co u tineu t. This machinery I ea 1 1 1 h e " A m eri - 
can electro-magnetic telegraph," 

What I claim as my invent ion, and desire to 
secure by Letters Patent, is— 

1. The employment, in a main telegraphic 
circuit, of a device or contrivance called the 
"receiving- magnet," in combination with a 
short local independent circuit or circuits, each 
having a register and register-magnet, or other 
magnetic contrivances for registering and sus- 



taining such a relation to the register-magnet 
or other magnetic contrivances for registering, 
and to the length of circuit of telegraphic line, 
as will enable me to obtain, with the aid of a 
main galvanic battery and circuit and the in- 
tervention of a local battery and local circuit, 
such motion or power for registering as could 
not be obtained otherwise without the use of 
a much larger galvanic battery, if at all. 

2. The combination of the apparatus called 
"the self-stopping apparatus," connected with 
the clock-work of the register, for sett tng said 
register in action and stopping it, with the pen- 
lever F, as herein described. 

3. The combination of the point or point's of 
the pen and pen-lever or its equivalent with 
the grooved roller or other equivalent device 
over which the paper or other material suitable 
for marking upon may be made to pass for 
the purpose of receiving the impression of the 
characters, by which means I am enabled to 
mark or print signs or signals upon paper or 
other fabric by indentation, thus dispensing 
with the use of coloring- matter for marking, 
as specified in my Letters Patent of January 
15th, 1816. 

SAML. F. B. MOESE. 

Witnesses: 

Geo; Wood, 

J. Thomas Clark.